Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of pediatric nursing


To determine the accuracy of the labeled quantity of the nicotine content of the e-liquids sold in unlicensed vape stores, whether the packaging of e-liquids sold within the vape stores was child-resistant, whether minors were present within vape stores, and whether sales to minors occurred. This study was conducted across North Dakota prior to implementation of a new e-cigarette state law and provided a baseline assessment before enactment of the new legal requirements.

Concepts: Nicotine, Cigarette


Gardasil is the first vaccine developed to prevent cervical cancer and other diseases caused by certain types of genital human papillomavirus in females, but little is known about parental acceptance of this vaccine. The purpose of this study was to test a model that predicts intention to vaccinate that includes constructs from the health belief model and the theory of reasoned action.

Concepts: Epistemology, Cancer, Immune system, Papillomavirus, Gardasil, Cervical cancer, HPV vaccine, Human papillomavirus


The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of a landmark technique for cannulation of the greater saphenous vein (GSV) near the medial malleolus. We performed bedside ultrasound in a convenience sample of 100 children, ages 3 to 16 years, to evaluate the anatomy of the GSV at the ankle. Despite the proposed constancy of the landmark technique regardless of patient age, the GSV location varied significantly with increasing patient age and weight. In children less than 10 years old or weighing less than 40 kg, the traditional landmark rarely predicted the precise location of the GSV.

Concepts: Medicine, Physician, Medical school, Mass, Kilogram, Weight, Great saphenous vein, Ankle


A safety event response team at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center developed and tested improvement strategies to reduce peripheral intravenous (PIV) infiltration and extravasation injuries. Improvement activities included development of the touch-look-compare method for hourly PIV site assessment, staff education and mandatory demonstration of PIV site assessment, and performance monitoring and sharing of compliance results. We observed a significant reduction in the injury rate immediately following implementation of the interventions that corresponded with monitoring compliance in performing hourly assessments on patients with a PIV, but this was not sustained. The team is currently examining other strategies to reduce PIV injuries.

Concepts: Evaluation, Surgery, Child life specialist, Physician, Educational psychology, Pediatrics, Hospital, Children's hospital


Studies of individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) have shown impairment in neurocognitive function. This study investigated the neurocognitive function in children with OSAS before and after positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. Twenty-one participants with suspected/documented OSAS were recruited, completing the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Child Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ), and/or the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Participants were administered sections of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV, the Delis Kaplan Executive Functioning Scales, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children, and the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning-2nd Edition to assess neurocognitive function. The ESS and the CSHQ indicate that many participants had excessive daytime sleepiness and increased sleep-disordered breathing. Participants before therapy reflected neurocognitive deficiencies in all areas. Of the original 21 children, 4 completed the full PAP treatment and were reevaluated, demonstrating improvements in memory and motor speed. Children with OSAS reported sleep-disordered breathing, increased daytime sleepiness, and deficiencies in neurocognitive measures. Correcting these sleep impairments appeared to reduce global neurocognitive deficits while improving memory and processing speed.

Concepts: Sleep disorder, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Sleep disorders, Obstructive sleep apnea, Sleep, Sleep apnea


Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at greater risk for developing pica compared to other children. This comorbidity can result in harmful medical and nutritional, and neurodevelopmental consequences. This article will describe the medical, nutritional, and psychosocial functioning in two children with SCD and pica in order to illustrate the potential complications and correlates of this co-morbidity. In addition, the clinical implications of pica in children with SCD will be discussed.

Concepts: Comorbidity, Latin, Medicine, Sickle, Sickle-cell disease


Mitochondrial disease is a spectrum of progressive genetic disorders resulting from dysfunctions of cellular metabolism in the mitochondria that greatly compromise the lives of affected individuals, who are often children.

Concepts: Electron transport chain, Oxidative phosphorylation, Cytosol, Adenosine triphosphate, Cellular respiration, Metabolism, Bacteria, Mitochondrion


This integrative review aims to synthesize the findings of studies on chronic sorrow in parents, to analyze the findings along three specific research questions, and to identify areas for future research.

Concepts: Chronic illness, Medical terms, Chronic, Medicine


This study aimed to examine the role of pet dogs in families of children with autism. Sixty-seven percent of families owned dogs and 94% reported that their children were bonded to their dogs. Parents described previous experience with dogs and beliefs in their benefits as influential in their dog ownership decision-making process. Children living with dogs interacted with them in play and/or sharing personal space. Sensory issues of the children impacted their interaction with dogs inside and outside the home. Time and cost of care were identified burdens of dog ownership. Benefits were the opportunity to learn responsibility and companionship.

Concepts: PDD-NOS, Pet, Pervasive developmental disorder, Asperger syndrome, Dog, Decision making, Autism, Autism spectrum


Mothers of infants with complex congenital heart disease are exposed to increased stress which has been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. The coping mechanisms these mothers use critically effect the familial illness adaptation and most likely infant outcomes. Currently no data-based strategies have been developed for mothers to facilitate their coping, and proactively promote their adaptation in the critical care settings. A potential strategy is mindfulness which is currently used in other clinical settings with stress-reduction effects.

Concepts: Avicenna, Effectiveness, Medicine, Epidemiology, Heart disease, Heart, Health care, Intensive care medicine