SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of pathology and translational medicine

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A developing central nervous system is vulnerable to various insults such as infection and ischemia. While increased understanding of the dynamic nature of brain development allows a deeper insight into the pathophysiology of perinatal brain injury, the precise nature of specific fetal and neonatal brain injuries and their short- and long-term clinical consequences need special attention and further elucidation. The current review will describe the pathophysiological aspects and clinical significance of white matter injury of prematurity, a main form of perinatal brain injury in premature newborns, with a particular emphasis on its potential antenatal components.

Concepts: Fetus, Cerebellum, Neuroscience, Pregnancy, Brain, Psychology, Central nervous system, Nervous system

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Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is defined by respiratory distress requiring supplemental oxygen in a meconium-stained neonate. MAS is clinically subclassified as mild, moderate, and severe according to the oxygen requirement. The aims of this study were to compare the histological findings in the placentas of MAS neonates with those of meconium-stained but non-MAS neonates and to analyze the correlation between the severity of MAS and the grade of its histological parameters.

Concepts: Infant, Placenta, According to Jim, Oxygen, Aspiration pneumonia, Pediatrics, Meconium aspiration syndrome, Meconium

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Ductal adenocarcinoma (DAC) of the prostate is an uncommon histologic subtype whose prognostic factors and immunoprofile have not been fully defined.

Concepts: Greek loanwords, Lung cancer, Adenocarcinoma, Prostate

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Thymic adenocarcinoma is extremely rare. Although its histologic features have been occasionally reported, a lack of description of the cytologic features has hampered the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this condition. Herein, we describe the cytologic findings and histology of four aspiration cytology specimens of thymic adenocarcinoma. The specimens were obtained from primary tumors, metastatic lymph nodes, and pericardial effusions. All four specimens showed three-dimensional glandular clusters with a loss of polarity and nuclear overlapping. One specimen had extensive extracellular mucinous material. Three specimens contained tumor cells with intracytoplasmic vacuoles. While the specimen with extracellular mucin showed relatively mild cytologic atypia, other specimens exhibited more atypical cytologic changes: irregular nuclear membranes, a coarse chromatin pattern, and prominent nucleoli. The cytologic features were correlated with the histologic features in each case of enteric type thymic adenocarcinoma. The differential diagnosis included other thymic carcinomas, yolk sac tumors, and metastatic adenocarcinoma from the lung or colorectum.

Concepts: Carcinoma, Metastasis, Immunohistochemistry, Oncology, Adenocarcinoma, Anatomical pathology, Lung cancer, Cancer

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Lymphomas arising in the central nervous system (CNS) of immunocompromised hosts represent non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas exclusively associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Here we report an autopsy case of EBV-associated CNS diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in a host suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus who underwent immunosuppressive therapy. After autopsy, EBV-associated CNS DLBCL as well as pulmonary mixed aspergillosis and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia were added to the clinical impressions of complicated pneumonia and cerebral hemorrhage in this immunocompromised patient. In conclusion, complex disease processes were revealed by autopsy in this case, indicating that the clinicopathological correlations observed through autopsy can improve our understanding of disease progression and contribute to the management of similar patients in the future.

Concepts: Immune system, Lupus erythematosus, Opportunistic infection, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Immunosuppressive drug, Lymphoma, AIDS

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When differential diagnosis is difficult in thyroid follicular lesions with overlapping histological features, the immunohistochemical staining can help confirm the diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of rapid immunohistochemical stains of CD56 and cytokeratin 19 (CK19) on frozen sections of thyroid follicular lesion and explore the possible gains and limitations of the practice.

Concepts: Differential diagnosis, Anatomical pathology, Immunohistochemistry

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Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is related to the pathogenesis and poor outcome of numerous types of carcinomas, including gastric carcinoma. Gastric cancer patients with HER2 positivity have become potential candidates for targeted therapy with trastuzumab.

Concepts: Growth factor, Cancer, Epidermal growth factor, Immune system, Epidermal growth factor receptor

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Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) is presumed to be associated with adipogenic differentiation. Histone modification is known to be important for adipogenesis, and the function of histone demethylase plant homeodomain finger 2 (PHF2) has been noted. In addition, PHF2 may act as a tumor suppressor via epigenetic regulation of p53 and is reported to be reduced in colon cancer and stomach cancer tissues. In this study, we examined PHF2 expression in CCRCC specimens by immunohistochemistry.

Concepts: Methylation, Histone code, Oncology, Histone, Epigenetics, DNA, Gene expression, Cancer

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Although the morphological features characteristic of products of conception specimens including molar pregnancies are well described, substantial histopathological similarities are observed between the different entities, especially in cases of early pregnancies. Furthermore, there are no current solid criteria that could predict cases with progression to persistent gestational trophoblastic disease. In this study, we aimed to determine the most specific histopathological and immunohistochemical features required for accurate diagnosis that can reliably predict the clinical behavior.

Concepts: Trophoblast, Gas, Oncology, Choriocarcinoma, Hydatidiform mole, Obstetrics, Gestational trophoblastic disease

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The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) has standardized the reporting of thyroid cytology specimens. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the nationwide usage of TBSRTC and assess the malignancy rates in each category of TBSRTC in Korea.

Concepts: Hanja, Seoul, Korean Peninsula, North Korea, South Korea, Korean language, Korea, Pathology