SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of pathology and translational medicine

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Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are the second most common pancreatic neoplasms and there is no well-elucidated biomarker to stratify their detection and prognosis. Previous studies have reported that progesterone receptor (PR) expression status was associated with poorer survival in PanNET patients.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Endocrinology, Benign tumor, Tumor, Neoplasm, Neuroendocrine tumor, Pancreatic cancer

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A receptor tyrosine kinase for ephrin ligands, EPHB2, is expressed in normal colorectal tissues and colorectal cancers (CRCs). The aim of this study was to investigate EPHB2 expression over CRC progression and determine its prognostic significance in CRC.

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Primary endobronchial smooth muscle tumors (SMTs), which are extremely rare, include endobronchial leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas. Clinically, SMTs present with signs and symptoms of bronchial obstruction, and lack specific radiological findings. Thus, histopathological examination is required for accurate diagnosis as well as for tumor grading. We examined the histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of endobronchial SMTs and highlighted pitfalls in diagnosis, particularly when using small biopsies.

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Gynandroblastoma is an extremely rare sex cord-stromal tumor with both female (granulosa cell tumor) and male (Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor) elements. Juvenile granulosa cell tumors are also very rare and are so named because they usually occur in children and adolescents. A 71-year-old woman with right upper quadrant abdominal pain visited our hospital. Pelvic computed tomography showed a large multilocular cystic mass, suspected to be of ovarian origin. We performed a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. A 13-cm multilocular cystic mass with serous fluid was observed in her right ovary. Upon microscopic examination, the solid component of the mass showed both Sertoli-Leydig cell and juvenile granulosa cell differentiation, which we diagnosed as gynandroblastoma. Gynandroblastoma with a juvenile granulosa cell tumor component is extremely rare and, until now, only six cases have been reported in the English-language literature. We report the first gynandroblastoma with a juvenile granulosa cell tumor component diagnosed in an elderly patient, along with a literature review.

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Chronic placental inflammation (CPI) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases in premature infants, whereas retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a major complication primarily affecting preterm and very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. This study aims to investigate the association between CPI and ROP in VLBW infants.

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Sclerosing pneumocytoma is a rare benign pulmonary neoplasm, which in Asia, most commonly occurs in middle-aged women. Because of the rarity of this disease, no data is available on its nationwide incidence or clinical characteristics. This nationwide survey was conducted by the Korean Cardiopulmonary Pathology Study Group to document the incidence and clinical characteristics of sclerosing pneumocytoma in a Korean population.

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Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a widely used treatment for most cholelithiasis and is a relatively safe procedure. Foreign body granulomatous reaction to bile or gallstone spillage during laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been rarely reported. We report a case of bile granuloma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which mimicked peritoneal seeding. Case Report: A 59-year-old Korean man presented with right upper quadrant pain. He underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis with cholelithiasis. Pathologic examination revealed an incidental adenocarcinoma invading the lamina propria with acute cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. After 3 months, follow-up abdominal computed tomography revealed a subhepatic nodule, which showed hypermetabolism on positron-emission tomography-computed tomography. Suspecting localized peritoneal seeding, wedge resection of the liver, wedge resection of the transverse colon, and omentectomy were performed. Pathologic examination of resected specimens revealed multiple bile granulomas. Conclusion: Awareness of bile granuloma mimicking malignancy is noteworthy for patient management to reduce unnecessary procedure during postoperative surveillance.

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Pulmonary nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (PNLH) is a non-neoplastic pulmonary lymphoid disorder that can be mistaken for malignancy on radiography. Herein, we present nine cases of PNLH, emphasizing clinicoradiological findings and histological features.

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Rhabdomyosarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor which shows skeletal muscle differentiation. Leptomeningeal metastasis can occur as a late complication, but currently there are no reports that have documented the cytologic features in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We report a case of metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma diagnosed in the CSF of a 28-year-old male who was originally diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma on the neck, and that went through systemic therapy. The tumor was positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase, but progressed despite additional therapy with crizotinib. The CSF specimen revealed small round cells, large atypical cells with abundant cytoplasm and eccentric nuclei, and cells with horseshoe-shaped nuclei. These cytologic findings were in agreement with previous literature and well-correlated with histopathology. This is the first report to document the cytologic feature of rhabdomyosarcoma in CSF. In many cases it is difficult to perform ancillary tests in a CSF specimen and cytopathologists should be aware of the cytomorphologic characteristics to avoid misdiagnosis.

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Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT) is a rare thyroid tumor with low to minimal malignant potential. HTT is often misinterpreted as other thyroid tumors, including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, because of its overlapping cytologic features, such as nuclear grooves and intranulcear pseudoinclusions. Although cytopathologists cannot definitely conclude HTT by FNA cytology, suspicion of HTT is necessary to avoid misdiagnosing HTT as PTC or MTC and to avoid unnecessary aggressive treatment. Here, we report a case of HTT with novel cytologic features in CellPrep liquid based cytology that was diagnosed as suspicious for papillary carcinoma by FNA and finally diagnosed as HTT in the surgical specimen.