Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of pathology and translational medicine


Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are the second most common pancreatic neoplasms and there is no well-elucidated biomarker to stratify their detection and prognosis. Previous studies have reported that progesterone receptor (PR) expression status was associated with poorer survival in PanNET patients.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Endocrinology, Benign tumor, Tumor, Neoplasm, Neuroendocrine tumor, Pancreatic cancer


Trophoblast antigen 2 (TROP2) is a human trophoblast cell-surface glycoprotein that is overexpressed in several types of epithelial cancers, and is suggested to be associated with an unfavorable prognosis. BRAF mutations are the most common genetic alteration in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We evaluated the correlation between TROP2 expression and BRAF mutation in PTC.


We aimed to determine the clinicopathological significance of the gross classification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to the Korean Liver Cancer Association (KLCA) guidelines.

Concepts: Cancer, Lung cancer, Cirrhosis, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Hepatitis C, According to Jim, Liver transplantation


Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin that shows locoregional and distant metastasis. Metastasis of MCC to body cavity effusion is extremely rare; only three cases had been reported so far. Metastatic MCC in effusion cytology shows small blue round cells with fine stippled chromatin like other small blue round cell tumors such as small cell lung carcinoma or lymphoma. The diagnosis of metastatic MCC could give patients good chances to get recently advanced therapeutic options. Here, we present a case of metastatic MCC to pleural effusion with characteristic single file-like pattern.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Lung cancer, Pneumonia, Types of cancer, Pleural effusion, Small cell carcinoma


Ependymoma is the third most common pediatric primary brain tumor. Ependymomas are categorized according to their locations and genetic abnormalities, and these two parameters are important prognostic factors for patient outcome. For supratentorial (ST) ependymomas, RELA fusion-positive ependymomas show a more aggressive behavior than YAP1 fusion-positive ependymomas. Extracranial metastases of intra-axial neuroepithelial tumors are extremely rare. In this paper, we report a case of aggressive anaplastic ependymoma arising in the right frontoparietal lobe, which had genetically 1q25 gain, CDKN2A homozygous deletion, and L1CAM overexpression. The patient was a 10-year-old boy who underwent four times of tumor removal and seven times of gamma knife surgery. Metastatic loci were scalp and temporalis muscle overlying primary operation site, lung, liver, buttock, bone, and mediastinal lymph nodes. He had the malignancy for 10 years and died. This tumor is a representative case of RELA fusion-positive ST ependymoma, showing aggressive behavior.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Lung cancer, Lymph node, Glioma, Brain tumor, Gamma knife


Thyroid carcinoma is one of the leading malignancies in Thailand increasingly prevalent in the female population. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is a widely used diagnostic tool for evaluation of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. Thyroid FNA is a routine procedure universally performed in Thai hospitals by a variety of clinical specialists. Manual guidance is the first-line choice complemented by ultrasound assistance in selected cases. Despite national guidelines recommendations, the diagnostic criteria and terminology of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) was slowly adopted in the local settings. Currently, the Bethesda system is actively promoted by the local professional societies as a uniform reporting system. Experience with thyroid FNA has been rarely reported to date-only a handful of publications are available in local journals. Our review, in addition to presenting various aspects of thyroid FNA in Thailand, established for the first time national references for a certain statistical outputs of TBSRTC based on the original multi-institutional cohort. The risk of malignancy in 2,017 operated thyroid nodules collected from three tertiary thyroid cancer centers was 21.7%, 14.7%, 35.9%, 44.4%, 76.7%, and 92.6% for categories I to VI, respectively. The malignancy risk in several diagnostic categories (II to IV) was higher than the risk estimated by TBSRTC and recent meta-analysis studies. We endorse the use of uniform terminology of the Bethesda system in Thailand, which will help facilitate communication among diverse medical professionals involved in the management of patients with thyroid nodules, to share local experience with the international audience.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Medical terms, Biopsy, Diagnosis, Pathology


Perineural invasion (PNI) is widely studied in malignant tumors, and its prognostic significance is well demonstrated. Most studies have focused on evaluating the mural PNI (mPNI); however, extramural PNI (ePNI) may influence the prognosis in gastric cancer. We evaluated the prognostic value of ePNI compared with mPNI in gastric cancer in this observational comparative cross-sectional study.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Lung cancer, Neoplasm, Prognosis, Cultural studies


Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is the most widely used screening and diagnostic method for thyroid nodules. Although Western guidelines for managing thyroid nodules and the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology are widely available throughout Asia, the clinical practices in Asia vary from those of Western countries. Accordingly, the Working Group of Asian Thyroid FNA Cytology encouraged group members to publish their works jointly with the same topic. The articles in this special issue focused on the history of thyroid FNA, FNA performers and interpreters, training programs of cytopathologists and cytotechnicians, staining methods, the reporting system of thyroid FNA, quality assurance programs, ancillary testing, and literature review of their own country’s products. Herein, we provide a brief overview of thyroid FNA practices in China, India, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand.

Concepts: Pathology, Quality control, People's Republic of China, Needle aspiration biopsy, Philippines, Asia, South Korea, Cold War


Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common microorganism found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised hosts. Although its cytomorphologic features in conventional smear cytology have been well described, those in liquid-based cytology have rarely been. A 73-year-old woman with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presented with mental confusion and a spiking fever. To rule out infectious conditions, CSF examination was performed. A cytology slide that was prepared using the ThinPrep method showed numerous spherical yeast-form organisms with diameters of 4-11 μm and thick capsules. Occasional asymmetrical, narrow-based budding but no true hyphae or pseudohyphae were observed. Gomori methenamine silver staining was positive. Cryptococcosis was confirmed in blood and CSF through the cryptococcal antigen test and culture. Liquid-based cytology allows for a clean background and additional slides for ancillary testing, facilitating the detection of microorganisms in CSF specimens, particularly in a small number of organisms.

Concepts: AIDS, Bacteria, Yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans, Lymphoma, Cerebrospinal fluid, Meningitis, Basidiomycota


Smad4 and PTEN are prognostic indicators for various tumor types. Smad4 regulates tumor suppression, whereas PTEN inhibits cell proliferation. We analyzed and compared the performance of Smad4 and PTEN for predicting the prognosis of patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma.

Concepts: Cancer, Bacteria, Lung cancer, Medical terms, Colorectal cancer, Nocebo, Prognosis, Thought experiment