Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research


Current literature has shown the mechanism of how indirect fractures occur but has not determined what factors increase the risks of such fractures. The objective of this study is thus to determine the effect of clothing and soft tissue thickness on the risk of indirect fracture formation.

Concepts: Tissues


To examine whole-body vibration (WBV) effect on bone mineral density (BMD) and fall prevention in postmenopausal women, we performed a meta-analysis and systematic review of prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing change in BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine and related factors of falls between WBV group and control group.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Hip fracture, Bone density, Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Lumbar vertebrae, Meta-analysis


BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder defined as pain and soreness, muscle tension, or stiffness in the lumbosacral area of the spine which does not have a specific cause. Low back pain results in high health costs and incapacity to work causing an economic burden to society. The optimal management of non-specific low back pain appears to be undecided. Recently published guidelines support the use of acupuncture for treating non-specific low back pain and it has become a popular alternative treatment modality for patients with low back pain. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic literature search was conducted through Medline using Ovid and Medical Subject Headings for randomized controlled trials published in the last 10 years. The outcomes scored were subjective pain scores and functional outcome scores. RESULTS: Eighty two randomized studies were identified, of which 7 met our inclusion criteria. Three studies found a significant difference in pain scores when comparing acupuncture, or sham acupuncture, with conventional therapy or no care. Two studies demonstrated a significant difference between acupuncture treatment and no treatment or routine care at 8 weeks and 3 months. Three studies demonstrated no significant difference between acupuncture and minimal/sham acupuncture with no difference in pain relief or function over 6 to 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: This review provides some evidence to support acupuncture as more effective than no treatment, but no conclusions can be drawn about its effectiveness over other treatment modalities as the evidence is conflicting.

Concepts: Spinal disc herniation, Low back pain, Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Pain, Acupuncture, Alternative medicine, Suffering


Rotator cuff disease is a common condition that causes shoulder pain and functional disability. Recent studies suggested that hyperlipidemia might be associated with the development of rotator cuff disease. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of hyperlipidemia and rotator cuff diseases.


Osteoarthritis of the knee is common and often leads to significant physical disability. While classic conservative therapeutic approaches aim for symptoms like pain and inflammation, procedures like the intraarticular application of hyaluronic acids (HA) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are thought to stimulate the endogenous HA production, stop catabolism of cartilage tissue, and promote tissue regeneration. To analyse whether the positive effects of PRP injections are associated with the level of cartilage damage, patient satisfaction with the treatment was correlated with the level of knee joint osteoarthritis quantified by MRI.


Extreme sports (ES) are usually pursued in remote locations with little or no access to medical care with the athlete competing against oneself or the forces of nature. They involve high speed, height, real or perceived danger, a high level of physical exertion, spectacular stunts, and heightened risk element or death.Popularity for such sports has increased exponentially over the past two decades with dedicated TV channels, Internet sites, high-rating competitions, and high-profile sponsors drawing more participants.Recent data suggest that the risk and severity of injury in some ES is unexpectedly high. Medical personnel treating the ES athlete need to be aware there are numerous differences which must be appreciated between the common traditional sports and this newly developing area. These relate to the temperament of the athletes themselves, the particular epidemiology of injury, the initial management following injury, treatment decisions, and rehabilitation.The management of the injured extreme sports athlete is a challenge to surgeons and sports physicians. Appropriate safety gear is essential for protection from severe or fatal injuries as the margins for error in these sports are small.The purpose of this review is to provide an epidemiologic overview of common injuries affecting the extreme athletes through a focus on a few of the most popular and exciting extreme sports.

Concepts: Medicine, Public health, Surgery, Injuries, Injury, Physical trauma, Accident, Personal injury


Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most commonly occurring forms of arthritis in the world today. It is a debilitating chronic illness causing pain and immense discomfort to the affected individual. Significant research is currently ongoing to understand its pathophysiology and develop successful treatment regimens based on this knowledge. Animal models have played a key role in achieving this goal. Animal models currently used to study osteoarthritis can be classified based on the etiology under investigation, primary osteoarthritis, and post-traumatic osteoarthritis, to better clarify the relationship between these models and the pathogenesis of the disease. Non-invasive animal models have shown significant promise in understanding early osteoarthritic changes. Imaging modalities play a pivotal role in understanding the pathogenesis of OA and the correlation with pain. These imaging studies would also allow in vivo surveillance of the disease as a function of time in the animal model. This review summarizes the current understanding of the disease pathogenesis, invasive and non-invasive animal models, imaging modalities, and pain assessment techniques in the animals.

Concepts: Medicine, Medical terms, Model organism, Animal testing, Rheumatoid arthritis, Osteoarthritis, The Animals, Knowledge


Bone fractures are one of the most common injuries in the USA. Fiberglass tape is a commonly used casting material, and many medical professionals apply adjuvants including liquid hand soap, foam sanitizers, and ultrasound gel in the hopes of improving outcomes relating to ease of molding and eventual strength, lamination, and smoothness of cast material. However, the efficacy of these agents to improve fiberglass cast mechanics has not been scientifically evaluated. The purpose of this study was to assess the mechanical effects of commonly used adjuvants on fiberglass cast materials.


To determine the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) compared to lidocaine as a tenotomy adjuvant for people with elbow tendinopathy.


Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a major health problem especially in the aging population. There is a need for safe treatment that restores the cartilage and reduces the symptoms. The use of stem cells is emerging as a possible option for the moderate and severe cases. This study aimed at testing the safety of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) expanded in vitro when given intra-articularly to patients with stage II and III KOA. As a secondary end point, the study tested the ability of these cells to relieve symptoms and restore the knee cartilage in these patients as judged by normalized knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Concepts: Bone, Stem cell, Mesenchymal stem cell, Bone marrow, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Knee, Mesenchyme