SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of orthopaedic science : official journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association

28

Rotator cuff tear is one of the most common shoulder diseases. It is interesting that some rotator cuff tears are symptomatic, whereas others are asymptomatic. Pain is the most common symptom of patients with a tear. Even in patients with an asymptomatic tear, it may become symptomatic with an increase in tear size. Physical examination is extremely important to evaluate the presence, location, and extent of a tear. It also helps us to understand the mechanism of pain. Conservative treatment often works. Patients with well-preserved function of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus are the best candidates for conservative treatment. After a successful conservative treatment, the symptom once disappeared may come back again. This recurrence of symptoms is related to tear expansion. Those with high risk of tear expansion and those with less functional rotator cuff muscles are less likely to respond to conservative treatment. They may need a surgical treatment.

Concepts: Disease, Medical terms, Symptoms, Symptom, Shoulder, Rotator cuff, Rotator cuff tear, Supraspinatus muscle

28

BACKGROUND: Grafting bone between the tendon graft and the bone tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction increases the mechanical strength of the tendon graft. However, the biological role of the bone graft is unclear. The purpose of this research was to elucidate the role of bone graft cells after autologous tendon graft into the bone tunnel with an autologous bone graft in green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic rats. METHODS: The Achilles tendons of Sprague-Dawley (SD) wild-type rats and bone of GFP rats were harvested and transplanted into bone tunnels drilled in the femurs at the knees of SD rats. The femurs were harvested at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after transplantation and histologically investigated using hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunostaining of heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), macrophages, and type I and type III collagens. Biomechanical tests were performed on the tendon graft 2 and 4 weeks after transplantation to evaluate the ultimate force to failure. RESULTS: A small number of GFP-positive cells was seen in the tendon graft 2 weeks after transplantation. The cell count in the tendon graft was increased at 4 weeks after transplantation. HSP47-positive cells and macrophage-stained cells present in the tendon graft corresponded with the GFP-positive cells. By 2 weeks after transplantation, the relative areas of immunostained type I and III collagens in the tendon graft had declined significantly in the bone graft group compared to the control. The ultimate failure load in the bone graft group was higher than that in the control group at both 2 and 4 weeks after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: This research showed that, within 4 weeks of transplantation, bone graft cells migrate to the tendon graft, where they differentiate into cells involved in collagen production and macrophages. Bone graft cells may contribute to the early stage remodeling of tendon grafts.

Concepts: Protein, Collagen, Knee, Anterior cruciate ligament, Ligament, Tendon, Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, Cruciate ligament

23

Symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff (RC) tears are often recommended for surgical repairs. However, some patients decide not to have surgery. The aim of this study was to see if there was any difference in preoperative variables between the two groups.

Concepts: Rotator cuff, Rotator cuff tear

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Longitudinal changes of elasticity in the muscle tissues around the shoulder joint during the growth period have not been assessed using shear wave elastography.

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Olanexidine gluconate (OLG) is a newly developed skin antiseptic, which is effective against a broad range of bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy and safety of OLG in orthopaedic surgery.

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Pain-related affective and/or cognitive characteristics such as depressive symptoms, pain catastrophizing, and self-efficacy are known to exacerbate pain in people with knee osteoarthritis. However, no studies have investigated whether these psychological factors can interfere with pain relief during conservative treatment. The object of this study was to assess the prediction models considering psychological factors to predict pain relief in people with knee osteoarthritis receiving conservative treatment.

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The Hospital for Special Surgery Hip Replacement Expectations Survey (HSS-THRES) is used in many countries to determine patient expectations before surgery. This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of HSS-THRES.

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Several studies indicated the influence of age and sex on spinal alignment using spino-pelvic radiographic parameters. However, information regarding the geometrical assessment of the sagittal spinal plane in the elderly population remains limited. This study aimed to determine the apices of lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis, and spinal inflection point in elderly individuals and clarify the effect of age, sex, and pelvic incidence (PI) on sagittal geometry.

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Patients who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) can experience musculoskeletal pains in their lower limbs in the early and late post-transplantation period. This study investigated demographics and clinical characteristics of the lower limb pain (LLP) among Japanese survivors of pediatric allo-HSCT.

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Disadvantages of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages are their smooth and hydrophobic surfaces and their lack of osteoconductivity. Titanium (Ti) coated PEEK cage has been innovated to overcome these potential concerns. However, few well-designed studies have investigated the efficacy of Ti-coated PEEK cage on interbody fusion in humans. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Ti coating on bone ongrowth at bone-implant surface by simultaneously comparing Ti-coated and uncoated PEEK cages in the same intervertebral space.