SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of orthopaedic science : official journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association

28

Rotator cuff tear is one of the most common shoulder diseases. It is interesting that some rotator cuff tears are symptomatic, whereas others are asymptomatic. Pain is the most common symptom of patients with a tear. Even in patients with an asymptomatic tear, it may become symptomatic with an increase in tear size. Physical examination is extremely important to evaluate the presence, location, and extent of a tear. It also helps us to understand the mechanism of pain. Conservative treatment often works. Patients with well-preserved function of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus are the best candidates for conservative treatment. After a successful conservative treatment, the symptom once disappeared may come back again. This recurrence of symptoms is related to tear expansion. Those with high risk of tear expansion and those with less functional rotator cuff muscles are less likely to respond to conservative treatment. They may need a surgical treatment.

Concepts: Disease, Medical terms, Symptoms, Symptom, Shoulder, Rotator cuff, Rotator cuff tear, Supraspinatus muscle

28

BACKGROUND: Grafting bone between the tendon graft and the bone tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction increases the mechanical strength of the tendon graft. However, the biological role of the bone graft is unclear. The purpose of this research was to elucidate the role of bone graft cells after autologous tendon graft into the bone tunnel with an autologous bone graft in green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic rats. METHODS: The Achilles tendons of Sprague-Dawley (SD) wild-type rats and bone of GFP rats were harvested and transplanted into bone tunnels drilled in the femurs at the knees of SD rats. The femurs were harvested at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after transplantation and histologically investigated using hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunostaining of heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), macrophages, and type I and type III collagens. Biomechanical tests were performed on the tendon graft 2 and 4 weeks after transplantation to evaluate the ultimate force to failure. RESULTS: A small number of GFP-positive cells was seen in the tendon graft 2 weeks after transplantation. The cell count in the tendon graft was increased at 4 weeks after transplantation. HSP47-positive cells and macrophage-stained cells present in the tendon graft corresponded with the GFP-positive cells. By 2 weeks after transplantation, the relative areas of immunostained type I and III collagens in the tendon graft had declined significantly in the bone graft group compared to the control. The ultimate failure load in the bone graft group was higher than that in the control group at both 2 and 4 weeks after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: This research showed that, within 4 weeks of transplantation, bone graft cells migrate to the tendon graft, where they differentiate into cells involved in collagen production and macrophages. Bone graft cells may contribute to the early stage remodeling of tendon grafts.

Concepts: Protein, Collagen, Knee, Anterior cruciate ligament, Ligament, Tendon, Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, Cruciate ligament

23

Symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff (RC) tears are often recommended for surgical repairs. However, some patients decide not to have surgery. The aim of this study was to see if there was any difference in preoperative variables between the two groups.

Concepts: Rotator cuff, Rotator cuff tear

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Although various clinical applications of geneX®ds have been reported, no study has reported the clinical application of geneX®ds in osteoporotic hip fracture. The present study aimed to identify the clinical effect of the application of geneX®ds in elderly patients with intertrochanteric fracture treated using proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA).

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Patients with spinal kyphosis were radiographically evaluated while standing. However, the spino-pelvic alignment during walking is different. This study examined the spino-pelvic-lower extremity alignment during walking by a three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis.

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Short stride length is one of clinical symptoms associated with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Short stride is a risk factor for falls; therefore, identification of factors associated with short stride is critical for fall prevention in LSS patients. Although the Two-Step test can conveniently assess maximal stride length, it has not become widely used; therefore, its data are limited. We identified the potential factors associated with short stride of elderly LSS patients using Two-Step test.

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Lower calcaneal speed of sound may be related to sarcopenia because sarcopenia and osteopenia/osteoporosis show a linked relationship in older adults. The purpose of this study is to clarify whether the speed of sound of calcaneal bone assessed by quantitative ultrasound is associated with sarcopenia in a community-dwelling older adult population.

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The silver oxide-containing hydroxyapatite-coated socket (KYOCERA, Osaka, Japan) is a cementless antibacterial implant that has both the osteoconductivity of the HA and the antibacterial activity of silver. The silver oxide-containing hydroxyapatite coating was shown to have good osteoconductivity and new bone formation in vitro and in vivo. However, the histological bone ongrowth of this implant has not been proven in a clinical study.

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Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) is reliable and accurate imaging modality for evaluating tunnel enlargement after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tibial tunnel enlargement including the morphological change after anatomic ACL reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) graft using 3D CT models.

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Early surgery improves the prognosis of elderly patients with hip fractures. However, many patients take antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies for comorbidities. This study compared perioperative outcomes and 1-year mortality rates with early surgery in elderly patients with hip fractures taking or not taking these agents preoperatively.