SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of orthopaedic science : official journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association

28

Rotator cuff tear is one of the most common shoulder diseases. It is interesting that some rotator cuff tears are symptomatic, whereas others are asymptomatic. Pain is the most common symptom of patients with a tear. Even in patients with an asymptomatic tear, it may become symptomatic with an increase in tear size. Physical examination is extremely important to evaluate the presence, location, and extent of a tear. It also helps us to understand the mechanism of pain. Conservative treatment often works. Patients with well-preserved function of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus are the best candidates for conservative treatment. After a successful conservative treatment, the symptom once disappeared may come back again. This recurrence of symptoms is related to tear expansion. Those with high risk of tear expansion and those with less functional rotator cuff muscles are less likely to respond to conservative treatment. They may need a surgical treatment.

Concepts: Disease, Medical terms, Symptoms, Symptom, Shoulder, Rotator cuff, Rotator cuff tear, Supraspinatus muscle

28

BACKGROUND: Grafting bone between the tendon graft and the bone tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction increases the mechanical strength of the tendon graft. However, the biological role of the bone graft is unclear. The purpose of this research was to elucidate the role of bone graft cells after autologous tendon graft into the bone tunnel with an autologous bone graft in green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic rats. METHODS: The Achilles tendons of Sprague-Dawley (SD) wild-type rats and bone of GFP rats were harvested and transplanted into bone tunnels drilled in the femurs at the knees of SD rats. The femurs were harvested at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after transplantation and histologically investigated using hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunostaining of heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), macrophages, and type I and type III collagens. Biomechanical tests were performed on the tendon graft 2 and 4 weeks after transplantation to evaluate the ultimate force to failure. RESULTS: A small number of GFP-positive cells was seen in the tendon graft 2 weeks after transplantation. The cell count in the tendon graft was increased at 4 weeks after transplantation. HSP47-positive cells and macrophage-stained cells present in the tendon graft corresponded with the GFP-positive cells. By 2 weeks after transplantation, the relative areas of immunostained type I and III collagens in the tendon graft had declined significantly in the bone graft group compared to the control. The ultimate failure load in the bone graft group was higher than that in the control group at both 2 and 4 weeks after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: This research showed that, within 4 weeks of transplantation, bone graft cells migrate to the tendon graft, where they differentiate into cells involved in collagen production and macrophages. Bone graft cells may contribute to the early stage remodeling of tendon grafts.

Concepts: Protein, Collagen, Knee, Anterior cruciate ligament, Ligament, Tendon, Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, Cruciate ligament

23

Symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff (RC) tears are often recommended for surgical repairs. However, some patients decide not to have surgery. The aim of this study was to see if there was any difference in preoperative variables between the two groups.

Concepts: Rotator cuff, Rotator cuff tear

0

Various pathological elbow lesions are often complicated with ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE), although the precise pathology, incidence, and clinical and neurological features of these lesions have not been identified. We therefore investigated elbow pathology and neurological severity in Japanese patients with UNE.

0

We prospectively analyzed the hip kinematics in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) before and after periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) and in healthy subjects while squatting to determine the influence of coverage of the femoral head on hip kinematics.

0

Farming is one of the effective community activities for preventing the need for new long-term care insurance services. This study was conducted to compare spinal canal diameters between patients injured during orchard work (i.e., cultivating apples) and other situations that lead to cervical spinal cord injury without major fracture or dislocation and to investigate the frequency of cervical spinal canal stenosis among farmers in a Japanese community.

0

The Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) is the most widely used patient-reported outcome measure for orthopaedic oncology patients. However, minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) in the TESS have not been analyzed. The aim of this study was to define the MCIDs of TESS in patients with lower extremity sarcoma.

0

Owing to musculoskeletal dysfunction, locomotive syndrome elevates the risk of requiring nursing care. Among degenerative musculoskeletal disorders, lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSS) associates with locomotive syndrome; however, whether lumbar spinal surgery for LSS improves locomotive syndrome remains unclear. Hence, this study aimed to identify the efficacy of lumbar spinal surgery on locomotive syndrome among elderly patients with LSS.

0

The rotator cable, a semicircular fiber bundle in the lateral portion of the rotator cuff, has been believed to transmit forces among cuff tendons. This study was performed to clarify the functional anatomy of the rotator cable through histoanatomical methods.

0

The effects of tenascin-C (TNC) on cartilage repair were examined in cartilage defect model mice. An in vitro study was also performed to determine the mechanism of cartilage repair with TNC.