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Journal: Journal of oleo science


Cholesterol has been suggested to play a role in stable vesicle formation by adjusting the molecular packing of the vesicular bilayer. To explore the mechanisms involved in adjusting the bilayer structure by cholesterol, the molecular packing behavior in a mimic outer layer of cationic dialkyldimethylammonium bromide (DXDAB)/cholesterol vesicular bilayer was investigated by the Langmuir monolayer approach with infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). The results indicated that the addition of cholesterol in the DXDAB Langmuir monolayers not only restrained the desorption of the DXDAB with short hydrocarbon chains, such as ditetradecyldimethylammonium bromide or dihexadecyldimethylammonium bromide, into the aqueous phase but also induced a condensing effect on the DXDAB monolayers. At a liquid-expanded (LE) state, the ordering effect of cholesterol accompanying the condensing effect occurred in the mixed DXDAB/cholesterol monolayers due to the tendency of maximizing hydrocarbon chain contact between cholesterol and the neighboring hydrocarbon chains. However, for the mixed monolayers containing the DXDAB with long hydrocarbon chains, such as dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB), the disordering effect of cholesterol took place at a liquid-condensed (LC) state. This was related to the molecular structure of cholesterol and hydrocarbon chain length of DODAB. The rigid sterol ring of cholesterol hindered the portion of neighboring hydrocarbon chains from motion. However, the flexible alkyl side-chain of cholesterol along with the corresponding portion of neighboring hydrocarbon chains formed a fluidic region, counteracting the enhanced conformational order induced by the sterol ring of cholesterol. Furthermore, the long hydrocarbon chains of DODAB possessed a more pronounced motion freedom, resulting in a more disordered packing of the monolayers.

Concepts: Hydrocarbon, Physical chemistry, Steroid, Molecular geometry, Lipid bilayer, Infrared spectroscopy, Monolayer, Langmuir


Patchouli is used as an incense material and essential oil. The characteristic odor of patchouli leaves results from the drying process used in their production; however, there have to date been no reports on the changes in the odor of patchouli leaves during the drying process. We investigated the aroma profile of dried patchouli leaves using the hexane extracts of fresh and dried patchouli leaves. We focused on the presence or absence of the constituents of the fresh and dried extracts, and the differences in the content of the common constituents. Fourteen constituents were identified as characteristic of dried patchouli extract odor by gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis. The structures of seven of the 14 constituents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (α-patchoulene, seychellene, humulene, α-bulnesene, isoaromadendrene epoxide, caryophyllene oxide, and patchouli alcohol). The aroma profile of the essential oil obtained from the dried patchouli leaves was clearly different from that of dried patchouli. The aroma profile of the essential oil was investigated by a similar method. We identified 12 compounds as important odor constituents. The structures of nine of the 12 constituents were determined by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (cis-thujopsene, caryophyllene, α-guaiene, α-patchoulene, seychellene, α-bulnesene, isoaromadendrene epoxide, patchouli alcohol, and corymbolone). Comparing the odors and constituents demonstrated that the aroma profile of patchouli depends on the manufacturing process.

Concepts: Olfaction, Drying, Perfume, Odor, Essential oil, Aroma compound, Aromatherapy, Patchouli


The aim of this research was to determine the chemical constituents and toxicities of the essential oil derived from Amomum tsaoko Crevost et Lemarie fruits against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius). Essential oil of A. tsaoko was obtained from hydrodistillation and was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 43 components, of which eucalyptol (23.87%), limonene (22.77%), 2-isopropyltoluene (6.66%) and undecane (5.74%) were the major components. With a further isolation, two active constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as eucalyptol and limonene. The essential oil and the two isolated compounds exhibited potential insecticidal activities against two stored-product insects. Limonene showed pronounced contact toxicity against both insect species (LD50 = 14.97 μg/adult for T. castaneum; 13.66 μg/adult for L. serricorne) and was more toxic than eucalyptol (LD50 = 18.83 μg/adult for T. castaneum; 15.58 μg/adult for L. serricorne). The essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LD50 values of 16.52 and 6.14 μg/adult, respectively. Eucalyptol also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against both insect species (LC50 = 5.47 mg/L air for T. castaneum; 5.18 mg/L air for L. serricorne) and was more toxic than limonene (LC50 = 6.21 mg/L air for T. castaneum; 14.07 mg/L air for L. serricorne), while the crude essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LC50 values of 5.85 and 8.70 mg/L air, respectively. These results suggested that the essential oil of A. tsaoko and the two compounds may be used in grain storage to combat insect pests.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Insect, Crustacean, Toxicology, Toxicity, Taxonomic rank, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Lasioderma serricorne


Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Van., a perennial herb with a strong volatile odor, is widely distrbuted in the world. Essential oil obtained from Artemisia argyi was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 32 components representing 91.74% of the total oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be eucalyptol (22.03%), β-pinene (14.53%), β-caryophyllene (9.24%) and (-)-camphor (5.45%). With a further isolation, four active constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as eucalyptol, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene and camphor. The essential oil and the four isolated compounds exhibited potential bioactivity against Lasioderma serricorne adults. In the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil, camphor, eucalyptol, β-caryophyllene and β-pinene exhibited strong contact toxicity against L. serricorne adults with LD50 values of 6.42, 11.30, 15.58, 35.52, and 65.55 μg/adult, respectively. During the fumigant toxicity test, the essential oil, eucalyptol and camphor showed stronger fumigant toxicity against L. serricorne adults than β-pinene (LC50 = 29.03 mg/L air) with LC50 values of 8.04, 5.18 and 2.91 mg/L air. Moreover, the essential oil, eucalyptol, β-pinene and camphor also exhibited the strong repellency against L. serricorne adults, while, β-caryophyllene exhibited attracting activity relative to the positive control, DEET. The study revealed that the bioactivity properties of the essential oil can be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major and minor components. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. argyi and the isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides, fumigants or repellents in controlling insects in stored grains and traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, The Essential, Essential oil, Insect repellent, Camphor, Lasioderma serricorne


During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oils of Evodia calcicola and Evodia trichotoma leaves were found to possess strong repellency against the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum adults, the cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne adults and the booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila. The two essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were investigated by GC-MS. The main components of E. calcicola essential oil were identified to be (-)-β-pinene (44.02%), β-phellandrene (20.93%), ocimene (16.49%), and D-limonene (9.87%). While the main components of the essential oil of E. trichotoma were D-limonene (69.55%), 1R-a-pinene (11.48%), caryophyllene (2.80%) and spathulenol (2.24%). Data showed that T. castaneum was the most sensitive than other two stored product insects. Compared with the positive control, DEET (N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide), the two essential oils showed the same level repellency against the red flour beetle. However, the essential oil of E. trichotoma showed the same level repellency against the cigarette beetle, while E. calcicola essential oil possessed the less level repellency against L. serricorne, relative to the positive control, DEET. Moreover, the two crude oils also exhibited strong repellency against L. bostrychophila, but lesser level repellency than the positive control, DEET. Thus, the essential oils of E. calcicola and E. trichotoma may be potential to be developed as a new natural repellent in the control of stored product insects.

Concepts: Petroleum, Essential oil, Oil, Oils, Tenebrionidae, Anobiidae, Lasioderma serricorne, Lasioderma


Coconut oil has recently attracted considerable attention as a potential Alzheimer’s disease therapy because it contains large amounts of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and its consumption is thought to stimulate hepatic ketogenesis, supplying an alternative energy source for brains with impaired glucose metabolism. In this study, we first reevaluated the responses of plasma ketone bodies to oral administration of coconut oil to rats. We found that the coconut oil-induced increase in plasma ketone body concentration was negligible and did not significantly differ from that observed after high-oleic sunflower oil administration. In contrast, the administration of coconut oil substantially increased the plasma free fatty acid concentration and lauric acid content, which is the major MCFA in coconut oil. Next, to elucidate whether lauric acid can activate ketogenesis in astrocytes with the capacity to generate ketone bodies from fatty acids, we treated the KT-5 astrocyte cell line with 50 and 100 μM lauric acid for 4 h. The lauric acid treatments increased the total ketone body concentration in the cell culture supernatant to a greater extent than oleic acid, suggesting that lauric acid can directly and potently activate ketogenesis in KT-5 astrocytes. These results suggest that coconut oil intake may improve brain health by directly activating ketogenesis in astrocytes and thereby by providing fuel to neighboring neurons.

Concepts: Nutrition, Fatty acid, Fatty acids, Fat, Ketone, Saturated fat, Oleic acid, Linoleic acid


It is important to construct microbiological treatment systems for organic solvent-contaminated water. We developed a continuous culture supplemented with a biostimulation agent named BD-C, which is formulated from canola oil, and Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain GJ10 for an aerobic dichloromethane (DCM)-dechlorinating microorganism. The continuous culture was a chemostat constructed using a 1 L screw-capped bottle containing artificial wastewater medium with 2.0 mM DCM and 1.0% (v/v) BD-C. The expression of genes for DCM metabolism in the dechlorinating aerobe was monitored and analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Strain GJ10 was able to dechlorinate approximately 74% of the DCM in medium supplemented with BD-C during 12 days of incubation. The DCM dechlorination rate was calculated to be 0.11 mM/day. The (ΔΔ)CT method showed that expression of haloalkane dehalogenase increased 5.4 times in the presence of BD-C. Based on batch culture growth tests conducted with mineral salt medium containing three DCM concentrations (0.07, 0.20, 0.43 and 0.65 mM) with BD-C, the apparent maximum specific consumption rate (νmax) and the saturation constant (Ks) determined for DCM degradation in this test were 19.0 nmol/h/CFU and 0.44 mM, respectively. In conclusion, BD-C enhanced the aerobic degradation of DCM by strain GJ10.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Gene expression, Bacteria, Organism, Microbiology, Water, Cellular respiration


The surface morphology of a cosmetic film consisting of an amphiphilic random copolymer (methoxy polyethylene glycol-23 methacrylate/glyceryl diisostearate methacrylate copolymer, MPM-GDM) and solvents has been studied. The cosmetic film was prepared through the evaporation of water from a homogeneous aqueous mixture of MPM-GDM, xanthan gum, and solvents. MPM-GDM was soluble in water, monohydric alcohols, and 1,3-butylene glycol (1,3-BG), whereas it hardly dissolved in glycerin. The surface morphology was examined by changing the solvent composition of 1,3-BG (good solvent) and glycerin (poor solvent). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images of the cosmetic film showed that MPM-GDM spread through the whole film in the absence of glycerin, whereas the addition of glycerin led to the formation of a sea-island structure. It was assumed that the size of the MPM-GDM domain was determined by the balance between two factors: the miscibility (or the interfacial tension) of MPM-GDM against the solvents and the viscosity of the continuous phase. We also demonstrated that the concentration of both MPM-GDM and xanthan gum affected the surface morphology. Control of the surface morphology by changing the solubility of MPM-GDM is expected to be useful for improving the functionality and feel of cosmetic films.

Concepts: Water, Ethanol, Solubility, Ether, Liquid, Phase, E number, Solution


A new amphiphilic antioxidant (tannyl stearate) derived from reaction of tannic acid with stearic acid was synthesized in order to improve tannic acid solubility in lipid materials. This reaction gives many products having different degree of esterification (tannyl mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta……stearate) which were separated using silica gel column chromatography and tentative identification was carried out using thin layer chromatography (TLC). The intrinsic viscosities (η) were used to differentiate between the different molecular weight of the produced esters(1)). Tannyl penta stearate is assumed to be the most suitable amphiphilic antioxidant derivative, where those derivatives with less degree of esterification would be less soluble in fat, and those of higher degree of esterification would exhaust more hydroxyl group that cause decreases of antioxidant activity. The structure of tannyl penta stearate was approved depending on its chemical analysis and spectral data (IR, H(1) NMR,). The emulsification power of tannyl penta stearate was then determined according to method described by El-Sukkary et al.(2)), in order to prove its amphiphilic property. Then tannyl penta stearate was tested for its antioxidant and radical scavenging activities in three different manners, those are, lipid oxidation in sunflower oil using Rancimat, (DPPH) free radical scavenging and total antioxidant activity. {Pure tannic acid (T), butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) were used as reference antioxidant radical saving compounds}. Then tannyl penta stearate was added to sunflower oil, frying process was carried out and all physicochemical parameters of the oil were considered, and compared to other reference antioxidant in order to study the effect of this new antioxidant toward oil stability. Acute oral toxicity of the tannyl penta stearate was carried out using albino mice of 21-25 g body weight to determine its safety according to the method described by Goodman et al.(3)). Also liver and kidney functions of those mice were checked. Thus it could be concluded that the addition of tannyl penta stearate to frying oils offers a good protection against oxidation. The effectiveness of tannyl penta stearate as lipid antioxidant has been attributed mainly to its stability at high temperature. And according to acute lethal toxicity test tannyl penta stearate was found to be a safe compound that can be used as food additive.

Concepts: Antioxidant, Chemical reaction, Molecule, Chromatography, Vitamin C, Thin layer chromatography, Silica gel, Stearic acid


The incorporation of additive in lipid bilayers is one of the ordinary approaches for modulating their properties. Additive effect on phase transition of ion-pair amphiphile (IPA) bilayers, however, is not known. In this work, four double-chained IPAs with different hydrocarbon chain lengths and symmetry were designed and synthesized from single-chained cationic and anionic surfactants by the precipitation method. By using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the thermotropic transition behavior from gel phase (Lβ) through rippled phase (Pβ') if any to liquid-crystalline phase (Lα) was studied for bilayers of these lipid-like IPAs in excess water. The effects of three sterol-like additives (cholesterol, α-tocopherol, and α-tocopheryl acetate) in IPA bilayers on thermal phase behavior were then systematically investigated. The experimental results revealed that with increasing concentration of additive, the phase transition temperatures were unaffected on the one hand and the enthalpies of phase transition were decreased on the other hand. When the addition of additive exceeded a specific amount, the phase transition disappeared. More hasty disappearance of phase transition was found for IPAs with lower total number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chains. For IPAs with the same total number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chains, the disappearance of phase transition is more hasty for the asymmetric one than for the symmetric one. Similar effects on thermal phase behavior of four IPA bilayers were exhibited by the three additives with similar chemical structures. Possible mechanism of additive effects on phase transition of IPA bilayers was then proposed in line with that of lipid bilayers.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Iron, Hydrogen, Carbon, Hydrocarbon, Phase transition, Differential scanning calorimetry, Surfactant