SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of multidisciplinary healthcare

223

Every element or cell in the human body produces substances that communicate and respond in an autocrine or paracrine mode, consequently affecting organs and structures that are seemingly far from each other. The same also applies to the skin. In fact, when the integrity of the skin has been altered, or when its healing process is disturbed, it becomes a source of symptoms that are not merely cutaneous. The skin is an organ, and similar to any other structure, it has different functions in addition to connections with the central and peripheral nervous system. This article examines pathological responses produced by scars, analyzing definitions and differences. At the same time, it considers the subcutaneous fascias, as this connective structure is altered when there is a discontinuous cutaneous surface. The consequence is an ample symptomatology, which is not limited to the body area where the scar is located, such as a postural or trigeminal disorder.

Concepts: Nervous system, Scar, Wound healing, Collagen, Healing, Organ, Skin, Human anatomy

15

It has been known for over a century that these cranial nerves exist, and that they are not typographical errors nor a sensational event reported in the medical literature. A number of scientific articles on anatomy highlight how textbooks on descriptive anatomy do not always consider variables such as differences related to the geographical areas where people live, and these differences do exist. This is an important concept not only for surgeons, but also for all medical professionals who use manual techniques when treating their patients, ie, osteopaths, chiropractors, physiotherapists, and other manual therapists. This paper highlights the latest developments regarding these cranial nerves, offering at the same time some ideas for further reflection when looking at clinical scenarios that appear to bear little relationship to each other. Inclusion of these concepts in everyday anamnesis is encouraged.

Concepts: Medicine, Greek loanwords, Therapy, Physician, Cranial nerves, Idea, Concept, Cliff Richard

6

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are increasing in prevalence. Children with ASDs present with impairments in social interactions; communication; restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, or activities; as well as motor delays. Hydrotherapy is used as a treatment for children with disabilities and motor delays. There have been no systematic reviews conducted on the effectiveness of hydrotherapy in children with ASDs.

Concepts: Sociology, Autism, Pervasive developmental disorder, Asperger syndrome, Autism spectrum, PDD-NOS, Behavior, Social relation

5

Recent figures show that there has been no change in the upward trend of direct and indirect costs for the largely benign symptom of low back pain in Western societies. This is despite greater understanding and the recommendation of a much more conservative and independent approach to its management. Moreover, in recent years, several large-scale education programs that aim to bring knowledge of the public (including general practitioners) more in line with evidence-based best practice were carried out in different countries. The hope was that the information imparted would change beliefs, ie, dysfunctional patient behavior and biomedical practice on the part of clinicians. However, these programs had no influence on behavior or costs in three out of the four countries in which they were implemented. It is argued that one reason for the overall lack of success is that it is extremely difficult to alter the potentially disabling belief among the lay public that low back pain has a structural mechanical cause. An important reason for this is that this belief continues to be regularly reinforced by the conditions of care of a range of “hands-on” providers, for whom idiosyncratic variations of that view are fundamental to their professional existence.

Concepts: Low back pain, Back pain, Belief, Truth, Epistemology, Symptoms

3

As the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) continues to grow, management of the disease still faces considerable challenges. Despite the existence of effective pharmacological treatments, patient adherence is often poor. Side effects of medications and patients' concerns about potential side effects may contribute to poor adherence. Situated as they are at the frontline of patient care in the clinic, nurse practitioners play an important role in the management of COPD. This review discusses the current literature on medications available for management of COPD, focusing primarily on their safety and tolerability. This information can be particularly important for nurse practitioners, who can be invaluable in identifying side effects, and providing education to patients with COPD on the available treatments and the associated side effects. By helping patients to understand the balance of benefits and risks of treatment, nurse practitioners may be able to help improve adherence and thereby improve patient outcomes.

Concepts: Medicine, Asthma, Medical terms, Patient, Hospital, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

2

Every body structure is wrapped in connective tissue, or fascia, creating a structural continuity that gives form and function to every tissue and organ. Currently, there is still little information on the functions and interactions between the fascial continuum and the body system; unfortunately, in medical literature there are few texts explaining how fascial stasis or altered movement of the various connective layers can generate a clinical problem. Certainly, the fascia plays a significant role in conveying mechanical tension, in order to control an inflammatory environment. The fascial continuum is essential for transmitting muscle force, for correct motor coordination, and for preserving the organs in their site; the fascia is a vital instrument that enables the individual to communicate and live independently. This article considers what the literature offers on symptoms related to the fascial system, trying to connect the existing information on the continuity of the connective tissue and symptoms that are not always clearly defined. In our opinion, knowing and understanding this complex system of fascial layers is essential for the clinician and other health practitioners in finding the best treatment strategy for the patient.

Concepts: Bone, Blood, Muscle, Motor control, Tissues, System, Connective tissue, Fascia

1

The research question is “How does a diabetes mellitus (DM) pictorial diary handbook (PDHB) affect the knowledge, practice, and HbA1c among patients with DM type 2?” The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a PDHB program among middle-aged and elderly patients with DM type 2 in primary care units in Thailand.

Concepts: Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Effect, Diabetes, Glycated hemoglobin

1

New developments in accelerating wound healing can have immense beneficial socioeconomic impact. The wound healing process is a highly orchestrated series of mechanisms where a multitude of cells and biological cascades are involved. The skin battery and current of injury mechanisms have become topics of interest for their influence in chronic wounds. Electrostimulation therapy of wounds has shown to be a promising treatment option with no-device-related adverse effects. This review presents an overview of the understanding and use of applied electrical current in various aspects of wound healing. Rapid clinical translation of the evolving understanding of biomolecular mechanisms underlying the effects of electrical simulation on wound healing would positively impact upon enhancing patient’s quality of life.

Concepts: Organism, Life, Scar, Wound healing, Healing, Electric current, Wound, Chronic wound

1

In the last 10 years, value has played a key role in the health care system. In this concept, innovations in medical practice and the increasing importance of patient centeredness have contributed to draw the attention of the medical community. Nonetheless, a large consensus on the meaning of “value” is still lacking: patients, physicians, policy makers, and other health care professionals have different ideas on which component of value may play a prominent role. Yet, shared clinical decision-making and patient empowerment have been recognized as fundamental features of the concept of value. Different paradigms of health care system embrace different meanings of value, and the absence of common and widely accepted definition does not help to identify a unique model of care in health care system. Our aim is to provide an overview of those paradigms that have considered value as a key theoretical concept and to investigate how the presence of value can influence the medical practice. This article may contribute to draw attention toward patients and propose a possible link between health care system based on “value” and new paradigms such as patient-centered system (PCS), patient empowerment, and P5 medicine, in order to create a predictive, personalized, preventive, participatory, and psycho-cognitive model to treat patients. Indeed, patient empowerment, value-based system, and P5 medicine seem to shed light on different aspects of a PCS, and this allows a better understanding of people under care.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Medicine, Health, Physician, Illness, Meaning of life, Health science

1

Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most frequent causes of child disability in developed countries. Children with CP need lifelong assistance and care. The current prevalence of CP in industrialized countries ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 per 1,000 live births, with one new case every 500 live births. Children with CP have an almost normal life expectancy and mortality is very low. Despite the low mortality rate, 5%-10% of them die during childhood, especially when the severe motor disability is comorbid with epilepsy and severe intellectual disability. Given this life expectancy, children with CP present with a lifelong disability of varying severity and complexity, which requires individualized pathways of care. There are no specific treatments that can remediate the brain damage responsible for the complex clinical-functional dysfunctions typical of CP. There are, however, a number of interventions (eg, neurorehabilitation, functional orthopedic surgery, medication, etc) aimed at limiting the damage secondary to the brain insult and improving these patients' activity level and participation and, therefore, their quality of life. The extreme variability of clinical aspects and the complexity of affected functions determine a multifaceted skill development in children with CP. There is a need to provide them with long-term care, taking into account medical and social aspects as well as rehabilitation, education, and assistance. This long-term care must be suited according to children’s developmental stage and their physical, psychological, and social development within their life contexts. This impacts heavily on the national health systems which must set up a network of services for children with CP, and it also impacts heavily on the family as a whole, due to the resulting distress, adjustment efforts, and changes in quality of life. This contribution is a narrative review of the current literature on long-term care for children with CP, aiming at suggesting reflections to improve these children’s care.

Concepts: Mortality rate, Life, Medical statistics, Demography, Population, Life expectancy, Cerebral palsy, Human Development Index