SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society

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Autophagy is one of the key responses of cells to programmed cell death. Memantine, an approved anti-dementia drug, has an antiproliferative effect on cancer cells but the mechanism is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to test the possibility of induction of autophagic cell death by memantine in glioma cell lines.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Cell division, Apoptosis, Glioma, Brain tumor, Programmed cell death

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Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a progressive cerebrovascular disease with unknown etiology, characterized by bilateral stenoocclusive changes at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and an abnormal vascular network formation at the base of the brain. MMD has an intrinsic nature to convert the vascular supply for the brain from internal carotid (IC) system to the external carotid (EC) system, as indicated by Suzuki’s angiographic staging. Insufficiency of this ‘IC-EC conversion system’ could result not only in cerebral ischemia, but also in intracranial hemorrhage from inadequate collateral anastomosis, both of which represent the clinical manifestation of MMD. Surgical revascularization prevents cerebral ischemic attack by improving cerebral blood flow, and recent evidence further suggests that extracranial-intracranial bypass could powerfully reduce the risk of re-bleeding in MMD patients with posterior hemorrhage, who were known to have extremely high re-bleeding risk. Although the exact mechanism underlying the hemorrhagic presentation in MMD is undetermined, most recent angiographic analysis revealed the characteristic angio-architecture related to high re-bleeding risk, such as the extension and dilatation of choroidal collaterals and posterior cerebral artery involvement. We sought to update the current management strategy for hemorrhagic MMD, including the outcome of surgical revascularization for hemorrhagic MMD in our institute. Further investigations will clarify the optimal surgical strategy to prevent hemorrhagic manifestation in patients with MMD.

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Among the spinal disorders, the treatment approach for spinal deformities has been discussed least among department of neurosurgery. But nowadays, more and more neurosurgeons are interested in spinal deformities as well as complex spinal disorders and are doing not a few surgeries for these kinds of disease. Nevertheless, it is mandatory to understand the course of spinal deformity, principles of treatment, and surgical outcomes and complications. Understanding of the biology, biomechanics and metallurgy of the spine and instrumentation are also required for successful spinal deformity surgery. We need senior mentors and good surgical and neurophysiologic monitoring team. Knowledge of spinal deformity may be augmented with spine fellowships and surgical experience. Step by step training such as basic knowledge, orthopedic as well as neurosurgical disciplines and surgical skills would be mandatory. Neurosurgeons can have several advantages for spinal deformity surgeries. By high-level technical ability of the spinal cord handling to preserve neurological function and familiarity with microscopic surgery, better synergistic effect could be expected. A fundamental understanding of pediatric spinal deformity and growing spine should be needed for spinal deformity surgery.

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To compare the spinal bone fusion properties of activin A/BMP2 chimera (AB204) with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP2) using a rat posterolateral spinal fusion model.

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To mitigate the risk of iatrogenic instability, new posterior decompression techniques able to preserve musculoskeletal structures have been introduced but never extensively investigated from a biomechanical point of view. This study was aimed to investigate the impact on spinal flexibility caused by a unilateral laminotomy for bilateral decompression, in comparison to the intact condition and a laminectomy with preservation of a bony bridge at the vertebral arch. Secondary aims were to investigate the biomechanical effects of two-level decompression and the quantification of the restoration of stability after posterior fixation.

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The goal of this study was to compare several parameters, including wall shear stress (WSS) and flow pattern, between unruptured and ruptured anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms using patient-specific aneurysm geometry.

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Lateral interbody fusion (LIF) is attractive as a less invasive technique to address anterior spinal pathology in the treatment of adult spinal deformity. Its own uses and benefits in treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis are undefined. To investigate the radiographic and clinical outcomes of LIF, and staged LIF and posterior spinal fusion (PSF) for the treatment of adult degenerative scoliosis patients, we analyzed radiographic and clinical outcomes of adult degenerative scoliosis patients who underwent LIF and posterior spinal fusion.

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The aim of the present study was to identify whether the deformity angular ratio (DAR) influences the occurrence of complications after posterior vertebral column resection (PVCR) and to establish the DAR cut-off value.

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Ultrasonography (US) is the most non-invasive, safe, and, especially in the period of infancy, best method for visualizing and examining the spinal cord. Furthermore, US is the primary work-up for development of the spinal canal, and for follow-up on issues relating to subcutaneous tissues, bone development, and the spinal cord. Conus medullaris terminates at the second lumbar vertebra, according to a consensus in the literature.

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The purpose of this study was to compare the cosmetic outcome and complications after cranioplasty (CP) due to three different implant materials, and analyze the mean implant survival and cumulative survival rate based on these results.