Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of investigative and clinical dentistry


The aim of the present study was to analyze the occurrence of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), Tannerella forsythia (T. forsythia), Treponema denticola (T. denticola), and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) in patients with diabetes.

Concepts: Oral microbiology, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis


Mussel-mimetic, bioadhesive polymers are synthesized from plant-derived sources. The strong adhesive action is caused by interactions between the catechol groups at the end of the polymer terminal chains and the substrate surface. Here, we present a preliminary study of the adhesion properties and a discussion of the adhesion mechanism.

Concepts: Sociology, Adhesive


The antiviral activities of Artocarpus lakoocha (A. lakoocha) extract have been reported in a number of studies; however, data regarding its antibacterial capability are limited. The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of A. lakoocha extract, poloxamer 407, on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis).

Concepts: Present, Enterococcus faecalis


A case of endodontic treatment of a mandibular first premolar exhibiting a total of four distinct root canals and four apical foramina is described. This occurrence in mandibular first premolar has rarely been reported in the endodontic literature. Endodontic treatment that considers the anatomic variation of root canal morphology is important to ensure a favorable healing outcome, and its identification could be enhanced by careful examination using a dental operating microscope. Obturation of root canals using a warm vertical compaction technique with a highly-radiopaque root canal sealer, such as AH Plus, after careful ultrasonic activated irrigation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid might allow the flow of sealer into the narrowed but unprepared part of the canal. This offers valuable adjuncts for the successful negotiation of calcified main canals, thereby facilitating optimum chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system.

Concepts: Mandibular second premolar, Dentistry, Mandibular first premolar, Premolar, Endodontic therapy, Anatomy, Root canal, Endodontics


Endemic to South India and Sri Lanka, Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by an agent of uncertain taxonomy: Rhinosporidium seeberi. Although it commonly manifests as a proliferative nasal lesion, many cases of Rhinosporidiosis have been reported where it has appeared as an extranasal lesion. The reported extranasal sites include the eye, ear, trachea, and parotid duct. However, the involvement of the parotid duct is quite rare, even among extranasal sites. The case presented is an adult female from the non-endemic zone of East India with a proliferative mass in the parotid duct. Although Rhinosporidiosis was not taken into consideration in the clinical differential diagnosis, eventual histopathological diagnosis confirmed Rhinosporidiosis. As this appears to be the second case of Rhinosporidiosis in the parotid duct in East India in 4 years, we encourage clinicians to be flexible in the differential diagnosis of proliferative growth in the parotid duct, even in those from non-endemic areas.

Concepts: Differential diagnosis, Rhinosporidium seeberi, South Asia, Medical terms, India, South India, Tamil language, Sri Lanka


BACKGROUND: The measurement of the thickness of the gingival tissues has been done using different techniques. Trans-gingival probing with a graduated probe, use of vernier calipers, ultrasonography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), have all been tried, but no one technique has been shown to be consistent and better than the others. The present study was done to evaluate and compare the gingival thickness as measured with a digital vernier caliper and ultrasonography. METHODS: A total of 30 systemically healthy, non-smokers were included in the study. The gingival measurements were made and recorded from the maxillary and mandibular lateral incisor areas at 2 locations: (a) at a point apical to the free gingival groove; and (b) at a point immediately coronal to the muco-gingival junction. RESULTS: The mean gingival thickness ranged from 0.56 to 1.02 mm. Males had a significantly thicker gingiva as compared to females (P < 0.10). Significant differences were not observed when the measurements made using the digital vernier caliper and those made with ultrasonography were compared. CONCLUSIONS: The thickness of the gingiva was in the range of 0.56-1.02 mm. A digital vernier caliper and ultrasonography both can be used to assess the gingival thickness with equal accuracy.

Concepts: Gingiva, Vernier scale, Caliper


Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a calcium silicate-based cement (CSC) commonly used in endodontic procedures involving pulpal regeneration and hard tissue repair, such as pulp capping, pulpotomy, apexogenesis, apexification, perforation repair, and root-end filling. Despite the superior laboratory and clinical performance of MTA in comparison with previous endodontic repair cements, such as Ca(OH)2 , MTA has poor handling properties and a long setting time. New CSC have been commercially launched and marketed to overcome the limitations of MTA. The aim of the present review was to explore the available literature on new CSC products, and to give evidence-based recommendations for the clinical use of these materials. Within the limitations of the available data in the literature regarding the properties and performance of the new CSC, the newer products could be promising alternatives to MTA; however, further research is required to support this assumption.

Concepts: Calcium, Cement, Endodontics, Calcium carbonate, Present, Time, Portland cement, Endodontic therapy


Photobiomodulation (PBM) or low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in dentistry is an evolving science, with an increasing number of controlled clinical studies exploring its potential as a treatment modality. The present study provides an outline of the biologic mechanism of PBM and summarizes the findings of clinical studies of PBM for specific applications in oral medicine. Controversies and drawbacks associated with PBM, which require further research, are also identified. Current literature reports the potential of PBM in various applications in oral medicine. Furthermore, well-documented research confirms its efficacy in certain conditions, such as oral mucositis, recurrent herpes simplex infection, and burning mouth syndrome. The absence of any reported adverse effects is an advantage over conventional therapeutic modalities. While PBM has proved to be effective for some specific applications, it is not a panacea. The paucity in standardized studies, coupled with ambiguity over the laser parameters, has limited its credibility as a therapeutic modality.

Concepts: The Canon of Medicine, Alzheimer's disease, Low level laser therapy, Herpes simplex, Effectiveness, Medicine, Laser medicine, Therapy


Khat or qat (Catha edulis) is a plant that grows in East Africa and southern Arabia. The leaves and twigs of this small tree are chewed by several millions of people worldwide for their stimulating amphetamine-like effects. The reported prevalence of khat chewing in Europe and the USA is on the rise, especially with global migration. Long-term khat chewing has several detrimental general and oral health effects. The aim of the present study was to review the current literature regarding khat use and its association with oral and dental diseases, with particular emphasis on its link with oral keratotic white lesions and oral cancer. We searched the literature to identify all relevant articles. Studies showed that khat is associated with several oral and dental conditions, including keratotic white lesions, mucosal pigmentation, periodontal disease, tooth loss, plasma cell stomatitis, and xerostomia. There are limited data on the incidence of dental caries among khat chewers. The evidence that khat chewing is a risk factor for oral cancer is still weak, and is mainly based on anecdotal case reports and uncontrolled studies.

Concepts: Khat, Halitosis, Mastication, Disease, Dental caries, Oral hygiene, Epidemiology, Dentistry


To analyze the effect of a silicon (Si)-based film deposited on yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) on the topography and bond strength of resin cement.