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Journal: Journal of infusion nursing : the official publication of the Infusion Nurses Society


Extravasation of medications during peripheral intravenous (PIV) therapy can result in harm to pediatric patients. These medications have physical and/or biologic factors that cause tissue damage. To assist in clinical decisions when using these infusates, an evidence-based table of medications stratified by their relative risk of causing harm if extravasated was developed. Local data and experience, a systematic review of the pediatric literature, and measured pH and osmolality of common pediatric preparations of PIV infusates were used to create a 3-tiered table of PIV infusates categorized by relative risk of causing harm if extravasated.

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, Extravasation, Relative risk, Medical statistics, Result, Number needed to harm, Causality, Medicine


Central venous catheters and peripherally inserted central catheters are widely used in children with serious chronic diseases. In this report, data about catheters and venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) in children will be reviewed, and the experience of a single academic children’s hospital will be described. Two separate data sets that examine overlapping subpopulations will be reported: (1) the proportion of pediatric patients with catheters who develop VTE and (2) the proportion of patients referred to pediatric hematology for VTE who have catheters. The limitations of current pilot data and the authors' approach to better define this problem and its prevention are discussed.

Concepts: Hospital, Deep vein, Vein, Thrombosis, Medical terms, Blood, Central venous catheter, Medicine


Rapid fluid resuscitation is used to treat pediatric septic shock. However, achieving fluid delivery goals while maintaining aseptic technique can be challenging. Two methods of fluid resuscitation-the commonly used push-pull technique (PPT) and a new fluid infusion technique using the LifeFlow device (410 Medical, Inc; Durham, NC)-were compared in a simulated patient model. PPT was associated with multiple aseptic technique violations related to contamination of the syringe barrel. This study confirms the risk of PPT-associated syringe contamination and suggests that this risk could be mitigated with the use of a protected syringe system, such as LifeFlow.


Infusion-associated medication errors have the potential to cause the greatest patient harm. A 21-year review of errors and near-miss reports from a national medication error-reporting program found that infusion-associated medication errors resulted in the identification of numerous best practices that support patient safety. A content analysis revealed that most errors involved improper dosage, mistaken drug choice, knowledge-based mistakes, skill-based slips, and memory lapses. The multifaceted nature of administering medications via infusions was highlighted. Opportunities for improvements include best practices such as developing learning cultures and reinforcing the independent double-check process on medications. Staff will likely benefit from education on specific medications, prescription details, and smart pump technology.


Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) account for one-third of all hospital-acquired infections and can cost the health care system between $21,000 and $100,000 per infection. A dedicated vascular access team (VAT) can help develop, implement, and standardize policies and procedures for central line usage that address insertion, maintenance, and removal as well as educate nursing staff and physicians. This article presents how 1 hospital developed a VAT and implemented evidence-based guidelines. Central line utilization decreased by 45.2%, and CLABSI incidence decreased by 90%. The results of the study demonstrated that a reduced utilization of central lines minimized the risk of patients developing a CLABSI.


In Iran, nurses are responsible for administering parenteral nutrition (PN) to hospitalized patients in intensive care units (ICUs). However, little information is available among nurses in Iran regarding best practices in PN administration. This study evaluates the performance of critical care nurses in Iran in the administration of PN. The performance of 50 nurses in the administration of PN in the ICU was observed 3 times during a 5-month period for a total of 150 observations. A researcher-developed checklist, “Critical Care Nurses' Performance in Parenteral Nutrition Administration,” was used for data collection. The total score in this checklist ranged from 0 to 52. Based on the procedural steps in the checklist and whether the steps were performed appropriately, nurses' performance was scored as poor, moderate, or good. The mean score of nurses' performances in PN administration skills was 24.6 ± 2.5. This study found that 46 nurses had moderate skill levels in PN administration, and 3 demonstrated poor skills. Overall, the results indicated that critical care nurses in Iran have poor to moderate PN administration skills.


A cluster of 11 midline catheter failures occurred during a 2-week period in a Hospital in the Home program in an urban tertiary hospital in Australia. These failures prompted a 4-month retrospective audit of patients receiving outpatient antimicrobial therapy between December 1, 2016 and March 1, 2017. Primary outcomes were dwell time and catheter failure. Peripherally inserted central catheters had significantly fewer failures and significantly longer dwell times compared with midline catheters. Women experienced higher rates of midline catheter failure than men. The proportion of patients with midline catheters receiving continuous infusions who experienced a failure was markedly higher than those receiving bolus doses. Suggestions for further related research are discussed.


This prospective study has been designed with the hypothesis that low unit price does not necessarily mean cost-effectiveness. Low-cost, domestic short peripheral catheters (SPCs) and higher-priced, imported SPCs were compared in 2 different time periods. With the use of the higher-priced, imported SPCs, the rate of successful insertion on first attempt was increased (P < .001), and the development of complications was reduced (P < .001). The study revealed that $345 was saved per 1000 catheters when the catheter with the higher unit price was chosen. Although the domestic SPCs had a low unit price, their use resulted in greater health care expenses.


Patients are increasingly receiving therapy at home via central vascular access devices (CVADs). Limited data exist regarding patients' experiences with outpatient CVADs. This study characterized outpatient CVAD care via 14-day patient diaries. Information included location, frequency, and purpose of CVAD access episodes and who performed CVAD care. Across all patients, 77% of care was provided in the patient’s home compared with other sites. Home care was provided via self-care (48%), by a family member/caregiver (25%), or by a nurse (27%). Flushing the device was the most frequent reason for device access (52%). An occlusion rate of 9.57 per 1000 device days was also noted. Further examination of CVAD maintenance and patient/care provider education is warranted.


To maximize safety and the patient experience, caregivers require intensive training to administer home parenteral nutrition (HPN) before initial hospital discharge. This article provides the rationale, best practices, and a template for caregiver predischarge HPN education provided by nurses. The standardized HPN discharge curriculum is outlined over 5 didactic and hands-on sessions.