SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of homosexuality

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Studies of adults who experienced sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE) have documented a range of health risks. To date, there is little research on SOCE among adolescents and no known studies of parents' role related to SOCE with adolescents. In a cross-sectional study of 245 LGBT White and Latino young adults (ages 21-25), we measured parent-initiated SOCE during adolescence and its relationship to mental health and adjustment in young adulthood. Measures include being sent to therapists and religious leaders for conversion interventions as well as parental/caregiver efforts to change their child’s sexual orientation during adolescence. Attempts by parents/caregivers and being sent to therapists and religious leaders for conversion interventions were associated with depression, suicidal thoughts, suicidal attempts, less educational attainment, and less weekly income. Associations between SOCE, health, and adjustment were much stronger and more frequent for those reporting both attempts by parents and being sent to therapists and religious leaders, underscoring the need for parental education and guidance.

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People are sometimes hesitant to communicate affection if it might be misinterpreted by the intended receiver or an audience. We hypothesized that anti-gay/-lesbian attitudes might negatively affect the perceived appropriateness of expressing affection. One hundred and twenty male and female undergraduates with either very high or very low levels of anti-gay/-lesbian attitudes participated in the study. They rated the appropriateness of expressing affection toward same- and other-sex targets in a set of 2 (public or private setting) × 3 (positive, neutral, or negative valence) scenarios. Results supported a “generalized inhibition” effect, with high levels of anti-gay/-lesbian attitudes associated with a reluctance to express affection regardless of target, setting, valence, or current relationship status. Implications for research on affectionate expression and anti-gay/-lesbian attitudes are presented.

Concepts: Phrenology, Gender, Information, Communication, Love, Affection

28

Abstract Although the attitudes towards homosexuality have become more liberal, particularly in industrialized Western countries, there is still a great deal of variance in terms of the worldwide levels of homonegativity. Using data from the two most recent waves of the World Values Survey (1999-2004, 2005-2009) this article seeks to explain this variance by means of a multi-level analysis of 79 countries. We include characteristics on the individual level, as age or gender, as well as aggregate variables linked to specificities of the nation-states. In particular, we focus on the religious denomination of a person and her religiosity in order to explain her attitude towards homosexuality. We find clear differences in levels of homonegativity among the followers of the individual religions.

Concepts: Philosophical terminology, Metaphysics, Morality, Societal attitudes toward homosexuality, Islam, Abstraction, Religion, Christianity

28

This article analyzes opposing discourses on homosexuality forwarded by two different Catholic social actors. These are linked to the messages of the Lady of All Nations, a Marian apparition site in Amsterdam. These different actors are understood as competing moral communities ( Hunt, 2009 ), especially about the issue of what constitute European values. Both discourses can be seen as examples of the minoritizing yet universalizing view on homosexuality ( Kosofsky Sedgwick, 1990 , p. 85). The devotion to the Lady of All Nations serves as a site for promoting competing discourses ( Hermkens, Jansen, & Notermans, 2009 ).

Concepts: Marian apparitions, God, Marian apparition, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick

27

Abstract This article analyses the inquisitorial trial of Maria Duran, a Catalan novice in the Dominican convent of Nossa Senhora do Paraíso in Portugal. Arrested by the Inquisition in 1741 and, after a lengthy trial, condemned in 1744 to a public lashing and exile, Maria Duran was accused of having made a pact with the Devil through which she had obtained a “secret penis” that she had allegedly used in her amorous relations with fellow nuns and novices. Her voluminous trial dossier offers a rare and fascinating documentary insight into the often extreme reactions that female homosexuality provoked from both men and women in early modern Portugal. Using the evidence offered by the eighteenth-century trial of Maria Duran, this article highlights female bewilderment when faced with female-on-female sexual violence and the difficulty men (in this case churchmen) had coming to terms with the existence of female homosexuality. It also discusses the case in light of the acts/identity debate amongst historians of the history of sexuality.

Concepts: Human sexuality, Gender studies, Sexual intercourse, Religious habit, Nun, Gender, Inquisition, Lesbian

27

The U.S. military’s ban on open homosexuality has become an increasingly salient issue since its implementation in 1993 and its repeal in 2011. The military is an organization with a unique professional and social organization. Evaluating military attitudes from a network perspective may offer insight into the role of formal and informal leadership in engendering attitudinal change and cultural tolerance around homosexuality. This study evaluates the role of network centrality and network exposure across formal (command networks) and informal (friendship and perceived leadership networks) structures on attitudes toward homosexuality in the military. This work analyzes survey data from a single cadet company within the U.S. Military Academy (n = 139) prior to the repeal of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell. Results indicate that popular students tend to show tolerance toward homosexuality, whereas those who hold command leadership positions are more likely to have personal and professional opposition to homosexuality. In addition, formal superior-subordinate relationships are somewhat more likely to suggest social contagion compared to informal leadership and friendship relationships. Recommendations offer guidance for training strategies particularly with respect to a military leaders and socialization. Future research should monitor these issues relative to the post-DADT environment.

Concepts: Gay, Societal attitudes toward homosexuality, Military of the United States, Social psychology, Cadet, Leadership, Homosexuality, Sociology

25

Despite conservatives' long-term opposition to gay and lesbian parenting, scholars theorize that a strong commitment to neoliberalism may influence conservative Americans to become more tolerant of same-sex adoption as a way to relieve the government from subsidizing poor families. Drawing upon national survey data (2010 Baylor Religion Survey), we test whether holding neoliberal values is associated with greater support for same-sex adoption in general and across political or religious conservatives. We find no support for either theory-emphatically the opposite, in fact. Neoliberal values are negatively associated with support for same-sex adoption for Americans in general and among political and religious conservatives. We find little evidence of a tension among conservatives regarding same-sex adoption as both their neoliberal values and moral beliefs incline them to oppose same-sex adoption along with other same-sex family relationships.

Concepts: Morality, Homosexuality, Religion, Family, Free market, Liberalism, Classical liberalism, Conservatism

24

Mobile dating apps are now a popular platform for men who have sex with men (MSM) to connect with others. Based on the uses and gratifications (U&G) theory, this study explores the relationship between sex-seeking and the number of casual sex partners met through MSM-based mobile dating apps (Grindr, Jack’d, and SCRUFF). The conditional process analysis (N = 401) shows that this relationship was significant and was mediated by the intensity of app use. That is, sex-seeking indirectly affected the number of casual sex partners through the intensity of app use. Furthermore, gay identity confusion and outness to the world moderated this indirect effect: it was stronger when the user was either more confused about his sexuality or was less out to the world. This research introduces an alternative way to incorporate psychographics variables into the U&G framework.

Concepts: Male, Sexual arousal, Sex, Gender role, Sexual intercourse, Vagina, Human sexuality, Homosexuality

24

Previous qualitative research on traditional measures of sexual orientation raise concerns regarding how well these scales capture sexual minority individuals' experience of sexuality. The present research focused on the critique of two novel scales developed to better capture the way sexual and gender minority individuals conceptualize sexuality. Participants were 179 sexual minority (i.e. gay, lesbian, bisexual, pansexual, queer, asexual) individuals who identified as cisgender (n = 122) and transgender (n = 57). Participants first completed the new scales, then provided qualitative responses regarding how well each scale captured their sexuality. The Sexual-Romantic Scale enabled the measurement of sexual and romantic attraction to each sex independently (same-sex and other-sex). Participants resonated with the way the Sexual-Romantic scale disaggregated sexual and romantic attraction. Although cisgender monosexual (lesbian/gay) individuals positively responded to the separation of same- and other-sex attraction, individuals with either plurisexual (bisexual, pansexual, or fluid) or transgender identities found the binary conceptualization of sex/gender problematic. The Gender-Inclusive Scale incorporated same- and other-sex attraction as well as dimensions of attraction beyond those based on sex (attraction to masculine, feminine, androgynous, and gender non-conforming individuals). The incorporation of dimensions of sexual attraction outside of sex in the Gender-Inclusive Scale was positively regarded by participants of all identities. Findings indicate that the Sexual-Romantic and Gender-Inclusive scales appear to address some of the concerns raised in previous research regarding the measurement of sexual orientation among sexual minority individuals.

Concepts: Sexual attraction, Asexuality, LGBT, Bisexuality, Transgender, Gender, Homosexuality, Sexual orientation

24

HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has been introduced as another biomedical tool in HIV prevention. While other such tools-including Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) and interruption of perinatal transmission-have been embraced by those impacted by HIV, PrEP has been met with more conflict, especially within the gay community and HIV organizations. The “PrEP whore” has come to designate the social value and personal practices of those taking PrEP. This study examines the “PrEP whore” discourse by using queer theory and quare theory. Within these theoretical vantage points, the study explicates four discursive areas: slut shaming, dirty/clean binaries, mourning the loss of condoms, and reclaiming the inner whore. The study illuminates possible discursive strategies that lie outside of the domains of public health and within the individual and community.

Concepts: Sociology, Queer, Gay, HIV, Pre-exposure prophylaxis, Sexual intercourse, Post-exposure prophylaxis, LGBT