SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of hematology & oncology

161

The chemokine receptor CCR7 mediates lymphoid dissemination of many cancers, including lymphomas and epithelial carcinomas, thus representing an attractive therapeutic target. Previous results have highlighted the potential of the anti-CCR7 monoclonal antibodies to inhibit migration in transwell assays. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of an anti-CCR7 antibody in a xenografted human mantle cell lymphoma model.

Concepts: Immune system, Protein, Cancer, Signal transduction, Lymph node, Types of cancer, Sarcoma, Mantle cell lymphoma

142

We developed a novel murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the C-terminal α-helix of the human von Willebrand factor A2, designated SZ-179. We showed that SZ-179 inhibited the interactions between VWF and ADAMTS13 and prevented the degradation of high molecular weight VWF multimers. Importantly, SZ-179 reduced the proteolysis of VWF-R1597W mutant by rADAMTS13 dose-dependently under native conditions. Our findings reveal a potential therapeutic target for bleeding disorders.

Concepts: Blood, Monoclonal antibodies, Monoclonal antibody therapy, Von Willebrand factor, Von Willebrand disease, Immunohistochemistry, Bernard-Soulier syndrome, Heyde's syndrome

59

Malignant cells have the capacity to rapidly grow exponentially and spread in part by suppressing, evading, and exploiting the host immune system. Immunotherapy is a form of oncologic treatment directed towards enhancing the host immune system against cancer. In recent years, manipulation of immune checkpoints or pathways has emerged as an important and effective form of immunotherapy. Agents that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) are the most widely studied and recognized. Immunotherapy, however, extends beyond immune checkpoint therapy by using new molecules such as chimeric monoclonal antibodies and antibody drug conjugates that target malignant cells and promote their destruction. Genetically modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors are able to recognize specific antigens on cancer cells and subsequently activate the immune system. Native or genetically modified viruses with oncolytic activity are of great interest as, besides destroying malignant cells, they can increase anti-tumor activity in response to the release of new antigens and danger signals as a result of infection and tumor cell lysis. Vaccines are also being explored, either in the form of autologous or allogenic tumor peptide antigens, genetically modified dendritic cells that express tumor peptides, or even in the use of RNA, DNA, bacteria, or virus as vectors of specific tumor markers. Most of these agents are yet under development, but they promise to be important options to boost the host immune system to control and eliminate malignancy. In this review, we have provided detailed discussion of different forms of immunotherapy agents other than checkpoint-modifying drugs. The specific focus of this manuscript is to include first-in-human phase I and phase I/II clinical trials intended to allow the identification of those drugs that most likely will continue to develop and possibly join the immunotherapeutic arsenal in a near future.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, DNA, Cancer, Bacteria, Oncology, Immunology, Antigen

44

Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the USA and worldwide. There has been considerable debate about its carcinogenicity. Epidemiological studies suggest that multiple myeloma (MM) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have a positive and statistically significant association with glyphosate exposure. As a B cell genome mutator, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a key pathogenic player in both MM and B cell NHL.

22

Daratumumab is a human monoclonal antibody that targets CD38, a cell surface protein that is overexpressed on multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Preclinical studies have shown that daratumumab induces MM cell death through several mechanisms, including complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and apoptosis. Given the encouraging efficacy and acceptable safety profile of daratumumab demonstrated in clinical trials, daratumumab has emerged as a novel treatment option for myeloma and became the first monoclonal antibody approved by the FDA for the treatment of MM.

Concepts: Immune system, Protein, Cell, Cytotoxicity, Pre-clinical development, Vesicle

20

Current acute myeloid leukemia (AML) therapy fails to eliminate quiescent leukemic blasts in the bone marrow, leading to about 50% of patient relapse by increasing AML burden in the bone marrow, blood, and extramedullar sites. We developed a protein-based nanoparticle conjugated to the potent antimitotic agent Auristatin E that selectively targets AML blasts because of their CXCR4 receptor overexpression (CXCR4+) as compared to normal cells. The therapeutic rationale is based on the involvement of CXCR4 overexpression in leukemic blast homing and quiescence in the bone marrow, and the association of these leukemic stem cells with minimal residual disease, dissemination, chemotherapy resistance, and lower patient survival.

19

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a common leukemia subtype and has a poor prognosis. The risk of AML is highly related to age. In the context of population aging, a comprehensive report presenting epidemiological trends of AML is evaluable for policy-marker to allocate healthy resources.

17

Inhibitory molecules such as PD-1, CTLA-4, LAG-3, or TIM-3 play a role to keep a balance in immune function. However, many cancers exploit such molecules to escape immune surveillance. Accumulating data support that their functions are dysregulated in lymphoid neoplasms, including plasma cell myeloma, myelodysplastic syndrome, and acute myeloid leukemia. In lymphoid neoplasms, aberrations in 9p24.1 (PD-L1, PD-L2, and JAK2 locus), latent Epstein-Barr virus infection, PD-L1 3'-untranslated region disruption, and constitutive JAK-STAT pathway are known mechanisms to induce PD-L1 expression in lymphoma cells. Clinical trials demonstrated that PD-1 blockade is an attractive way to restore host’s immune function in hematological malignancies, particularly classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Numerous clinical trials exploring PD-1 blockade as a single therapy or in combination with other immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with hematologic cancers are under way. Although impressive clinical response is observed with immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with certain cancers, not all patients respond to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Therefore, to identify best candidates who would have excellent response to checkpoint inhibitors is of utmost importance. Several possible biomarkers are available, but consensus has not been made and pursuit to discover the best biomarker is ongoing.

Concepts: AIDS, Cancer, Bone marrow, Hematology, Leukemia, Lymphoma, Acute myeloid leukemia, Blood disorders

17

Targeted therapy has been the forefront of cancer treatment. Cancer immunotherapy is the most recent focus. In addition, novel immunotherapeutics targeting B cell receptor signaling (e.g., ibrutinib), T cell receptor ( e.g., CART19), and NK cells (e.g., AFM13) are being developed. This review summarized the new development in blinatumomab (MT103/MEDI-538), a first-in-class bispecific T engager (BiTE) antibody against CD19/CD3 in patients with relapsed/refractory precursor B cell acute lymphoid leukemia.

Concepts: Immune system, Lymphocyte, Protein, Natural killer cell, B cell, T cell, Leukemia, Cancer treatments

15

Oncological care was largely derailed due to the reprioritisation of health care services to handle the initial surge of COVID-19 patients adequately. Cancer screening programmes were no exception in this reprioritisation. They were temporarily halted in the Netherlands (1) to alleviate the pressure on health care services overwhelmed by the upsurge of COVID-19 patients, (2) to reallocate staff and personal protective equipment to support critical COVID-19 care, and (3) to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. Utilising data from the Netherlands Cancer Registry on provisional cancer diagnoses between 6 January 2020 and 4 October 2020, we assessed the impact of the temporary halt of national population screening programmes on the diagnosis of breast and colorectal cancer in the Netherlands. A dynamic harmonic regression model with ARIMA error components was applied to assess the observed versus expected number of cancer diagnoses per calendar week. Fewer diagnoses of breast and colorectal cancer were objectified amid the early stages of the initial COVID-19 outbreak in the Netherlands. This effect was most pronounced among the age groups eligible for cancer screening programmes, especially in breast cancer (age group 50-74 years). Encouragingly enough, the observed number of diagnoses ultimately reached and virtually remained at the level of the expected values. This finding, which emerged earlier in age groups not invited for cancer screening programmes, comes on account of the decreased demand for critical COVID-19 care since early April 2020, which, in turn, paved the way forward to resume screening programmes and a broad range of non-critical health care services, albeit with limited operating and workforce capacity. Collectively, transient changes in health-seeking behaviour, referral practices, and cancer screening programmes amid the early stages of the initial COVID-19 epidemic in the Netherlands conjointly acted as an accelerant for fewer breast and colorectal cancer diagnoses in age groups eligible for cancer screening programmes. Forthcoming research is warranted to assess whether the decreased diagnostic scrutiny of cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in stage migration and altered clinical management, as well as poorer outcomes.