SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of general internal medicine

143

African Americans are especially at risk of hypertension and dementia. Antihypertensive medications reduce the risk of cardiovascular events, but may also reduce the risk of dementia.

Concepts: Southern United States, Jim Crow laws, Democratic Party

45

Postoperative delirium is a common preventable complication experienced by older adults undergoing elective surgery. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we identified prognostic factors associated with the risk of postoperative delirium among older adults undergoing elective surgery.

Concepts: Medical terms

34

As our society ages, improving medical care for an older population will be crucial. Discrimination in healthcare may contribute to substandard experiences with the healthcare system, increasing the burden of poor health in older adults. Few studies have focused on the presence of healthcare discrimination and its effects on older adults.

Concepts: Health care, Health economics, Medicine, Healthcare, Health insurance, Health, Illness, Health science

32

Headache is a frequent complaint and among the most common reasons for visiting a physician.

31

There is increasing concern over the risk of consumer unintentional misuse of non-prescription (a.k.a. ‘over-the-counter’) medications containing acetaminophen, which could lead to acute liver failure.

Concepts: Liver, Paracetamol, Barbiturate, Hepatic encephalopathy, Paracetamol toxicity, Codeine

28

Prediabetes affects 86 million US adults, but primary care providers' (PCPs') knowledge, practices, attitudes and beliefs toward prediabetes are unclear.

Concepts: Epistemology, Primary care physician

28

Low health literacy is considered a potential barrier to improving health outcomes in people with diabetes and other chronic conditions, although the evidence has not been previously systematically reviewed.

Concepts: Medicine, Health literacy, Review, Literacy

28

BACKGROUND: Empiric proton pump inhibitor use is common for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), but initial proton pump inhibitor (PPI) prescription patterns in Veterans are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The study aims were to determine initial PPI prescriptions in Veterans diagnosed with GERD, and to characterize subsequent PPI use over the 2 years following initial prescription. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective study using Veteran’s Administration (VA) administrative data and chart review. STUDY POPULATION: Patients diagnosed with GERD and provided an initial PPI prescription at Hines VA Hospital from 2003 to 2007, with 2 year follow-up for each patient (through 2009). MEASURES AND OUTCOMES: Initial PPI prescriptions were categorized as standard total daily dose or high total daily dose, and accuracy was confirmed by manual chart review. Descriptive statistics were calculated and bivariate analyses were used to assess for differences in demographics, prescriptions, and subsequent use by initial PPI dosage category. RESULTS: Of the 1,621 patients included in the study, 378 (23.3 %) had high total daily dose initial PPI prescriptions and 1,243 (76.7 %) patients had standard total daily dose initial prescriptions. The majority of patients (65.8 %) received a 90-day or greater initial prescription. Over the 2 years following the initial PPI prescription, 13.0 % of patients with initial standard daily dose prescriptions had evidence of step-up therapy. Only 7.1 % of patients with initial high daily dose PPI prescriptions had evidence of step-down therapy. A large majority of patients (83.8 %) had at least one refill over 2 years, and the overall medication possession ratio was 0.86. CONCLUSIONS: Many Veterans receive high total daily dose PPI prescriptions as initial therapy for a GERD diagnosis, and few patients have evidence for cessation or reduction of therapy. These results provide detailed data on prescribing and use of PPIs to help guide efforts for optimal PPI use in US Veterans.

Concepts: Gastroenterology, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, Lansoprazole

27

While some research has examined general attitudes about efforts to reduce overutilization of services, such as the Choosing Wisely(®) (CW) initiative, little data exists regarding primary care providers' attitudes regarding individual recommendations.

Concepts: Concepts in metaphysics, Primary care physician

26

Although many specialists serve as primary care physicians (PCPs), the type of patients they serve, the range of services they provide, and the quality of care they deliver is uncertain.

Concepts: United States, United Kingdom, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Primary election