Journal: Journal of gastrointestinal oncology
Pancreatic cancer is known to be one of the most lethal cancers. The majority of patients present with advanced stage disease, making curative approach unachievable. In untreated patients, the median survival does not exceed 6 months in metastatic disease and 10 months in locally advanced disease. Furthermore, the 5-year survival rate remains poor even in patients with early stage disease who are surgical candidates. The detrimental outcome is related to the high potency of developing metastasis which can be detected at diagnosis, when the disease progresses or relapses after surgery. Although the liver is the most common site of pancreatic cancer metastases, the cancer can escape the liver in some cases and metastasize to the lung or other distant organs. The involvement of some sites not others might reflect subgroups of this cancer with different molecular backgrounds. Identifying these groups may have utility in determining prognosis and stratifying treatment for patients.
Colorectal cancer is the third commonest cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death among men and women. It has been proposed that dietary factors are responsible for 70-90% of colorectal cancer and diet optimization may prevent most cases.
Genetic markers for distant metastatic disease in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) are not well defined. Identification of genetic alterations associated with metastatic CRC could help to guide systemic and local treatment strategies. We evaluated the association of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10C (TNFRSF10C) copy number variation (CNV) with distant metastatic disease in patients with CRC using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is often incurable at the time of diagnosis. For patients with unresectable or recurrent disease, palliation of pain is a key component of care. Medical management with narcotics has numerous side effects and may be ineffective. Interventions for pain control include celiac plexus neurolysis (CPN) and splanchnicectomy. The purpose of this review is to outline pertinent anatomy, techniques, side effects, complications, and efficacy of interventions for palliation of pain from pancreatic cancer.
The poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer has been well established. For many patients, active treatments can improve patient outcomes, such as overall survival and symptom control. Nevertheless, there is evidence that pancreatic cancer is undertreated, even in patients with resectable disease. In addition, although participation in a clinical trial is recommended by current pancreatic cancer treatment guidelines, recent data suggest that patient participation in ongoing trials is below overall target accrual.
Granulomatous reactions are related to infectious and non infectious diseases, but more rarely, granulomas may occur in association to malignancies. The presence of sarcoid-like granulomas in lymph nodes draining malignant tumors is an uncommon but well known occurrence. However, their presence in the stroma of malignant tumors is much rarer. We have only found two previous cases reported in the Japanese and English literature. In this study we report a well differentiated adenocarcinoma of the right colon associated to a stromal granulomatous sarcoid-like reaction. Lymph nodes were not involved. The patient had a clinical history of tuberculosis treated 15 years ago, but there was no clinical, histomorphological, immunohistochemical or molecular evidence of disease at the moment of these findings. We have reviewed the literature to find the keys and the diagnostic challenges posed by granulomatous sarcoid-like reaction occurring in lymph nodes draining malignant neoplasms, peritumoral stroma and in other organs far from the primary tumor. The diagnosis of granulomatous sarcoid-like reactions associated to malignancies can be challenging and it can only be made after ruling out specific infectious and non infectious causes of granulomatous inflammation. The mechanisms involved in granuloma formation, their relationship with demographic and histopathological features, their possible association with autoimmune disorders, their cytokine profile and, more importantly, their prognostic significance in each type of tumor are still unclear and require studies with larger number of patients.
Gallbladder adenocarcinoma has a poor prognostic. The leading modes of dissemination in gallbladder cancer (GBC) are lymphatic, vascular, neural, intraperitoneal, and intraductal. The most common site of dissemination is liver. Breast metastasis in GBC is an unusual site of dissemination. Only few cases have been reported in the literature. We report a rare case of solitary breast metastasis from recurrent gallbladder carcinoma in light of existing literature.
The incidence of positive margins after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and adequate surgery is very low. However, when patients do present with positive or close margins, they are at a risk of local failure and local therapy options are limited. We evaluated the role of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in patients with positive or close margins after induction chemoradiation and total mesorectal excision.
Radiotherapy and surgery have shown to improve local control and survival in rectal cancer. There are two applied schedules; radiotherapy with a long or short waiting period before surgery. The effect on survival and recurrence of both schedules was studied.
To investigate the available data on the treatment of early colorectal cancer (CRC), either endoscopically or surgically.