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Journal: Journal of fluorescence


The first fluorescent sensor for HF2 (-) anion, N(1), N(3)-di(naphthalene-1-yl)isophthalamide (L) has been derived from α-Napthylamine and isopthaloyl chloride. In 1:1 (v/v) DMSO:H2O, L exhibits high selectivity towards HF2 (-) anion with a 4-fold enhancement in fluorescent intensity. Very little enhancement in fluorescence intensity is observed for F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), SCN(-), PO4 (3-), SO4 (2-), and CH3COO(-) anions. The stoichiometry interaction between L and HF2 (-) is found to be 1:1 from fluorescence and UV/Visible spectral data. DFT calculation shows that binding between HF2 (-) and L is 1:1 and increases the relative planarity between the two naphthyl rings causing fluorescence enhancement. A shift of 0.080 V in oxidation potential of L is observed on interaction with HF2 (-) by cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry.

Concepts: Electron, Light, Hydrogen, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Electrochemistry, Atom, Ion, Squarewave voltammetry


As the hardware of FLIM technique becomes mature, the most important criterion for FLIM application is the correct interpretation of its data. In this research, first of all, a more orthogonal phasor approach, called as Modified Phasor Approach (MPA), is put forward. It is a way to calculate the lifetime of the complex fluorescent process, and a rule to measure how much the fluorescence process deviates from single exponential decay. Secondly, MPA is used to analysis the time-resolved fluorescence processes of the transfected CHO-K1 Cell lines expressing adenosine receptor A1R tagged by CYP and YFP, measured in the channel of the acceptor. The image of the fluorescence lifetime and the multiplication of the fluorescence lifetime and deviation from single exponential decay reveal the details of the Homo-FRET. In one word, MPA provides the physical meaning in its whole modified phasor space, and broadens the way for the application of the fluorescence lifetime imaging.

Concepts: Fluorescence, Measurement, Radioactive decay, Computer program, Real number, Exponential function, English Channel, Ruler


Fluorescent PET (Photoinduced Electron Transfer) has been of particular growth in recent times. A novel PET based fluorescent sensor using unmodified CdSe quantum dots (QDs) has been developed for the trace determination of Nimesulide (NIM). The sensor is based on the selective fluorescence quenching of quantum dots by NIM in presence of other NSAIDs and is found that intensity of quenching is linearly related to NIM concentration in the range 8.2 × 10(-7) - 4.01 × 10(-5) M. The mechanism of interaction is discussed. Finally, the potential application of the proposed method for the trace determination of NIM in pharmaceutical formulation is demonstrated.

Concepts: Fluorescence, Electron, Spectroscopy, Pharmacology, Ultraviolet, Light, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Quenching


Based on resonance energy transfer (FRET) from dansyl to rhodamine 101, a new fluorescent probe (compound 1) containing rhodamine 101 and a dansyl unit was synthesized for detecting Hg(2+) through ratiometric sensing in DMSO aqueous solutions. This probe shows a fast, reversible and selective response toward Hg(2+) in a wide pH range. Hg(2+) induced ring-opening reactions of the spirolactam rhodamine moiety of 1, leading to the formation of fluorescent derivatives that can serve as the FRET acceptors. Very large stokes shift (220 nm) was observed in this case. About 97-fold increase in fluorescence intensity ratio was observed upon its binding with Hg(2+).

Concepts: Fluorescence, Spectroscopy, Light, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Chemistry, Solutions, Förster resonance energy transfer, Stokes shift


Competitive dye displacement titration has previously been used to characterize chitosan-DNA interactions using ethidium bromide. In this work, we aim to develop a fast and reliable method using SYBR Gold as a fluorescent probe to evaluate the binding affinity between ssRNA and chitosan. The interaction of chitosan with ssRNA was investigated as a function of temperature, molecular weight and degree of acetylation of chitosan, using competitive dye displacement titrations with fluorescence quenching. Affinity constants are reported, showing the high sensitivity of the interaction to the degree of acetylation of chitosan and barely dependent on the molecular weight. We propose that the mechanism of SYBR Gold fluorescence quenching is governed by both static and dynamic quenching.

Concepts: DNA, Fluorescence, Electron, Molecular biology, Ethidium bromide, Atomic mass unit, Agarose gel electrophoresis, Quenching


Being short of conventional chromophores, polyacrylamide is generally not regarded as a fluorescent material. Exactly the polymerization of dilute solutions of acrylamide and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide led to thick liquids at 60 °C, showing no fluorescence. Things changed when the phase transition of water was involved. The squeezing effect of ice crystals not only created polymeric solids (cryogels) at - 20 °C, but also endowed them unexpected fluorescence emissions. The macroporous cryogels are mainly blue fluorescent polymers. However yellow and red fluorescence were also achieved by changing the ingredient ratios. A series of instrumental detections revealed that the multicolor fluorescence were based on exquisite amido stacking induced from ice squeezing. If people make good use of the squeezing effect of the heaven-sent molecule to manipulate the interactions of monomer functionalities, cryogenic polymerization can be a promising method to produce diverse polymeric materials.

Concepts: Oxygen, Water, Ice, Polymer, Polymer chemistry, Monomer, Solid, Polymerization


A novel naphthalimide-based colorimetric and fluorescent turn-on chemosensor for Al(3+) was synthesized and characterized with spectroscopic techniques. In MeOH solution, BPAM showed high selectivity and sensitivity to Al(3+) by a 60-fold fluorescence enhancement and blue-shift absorption with visible color changes attributed to the contribution of chelation enhanced fluorescence (CHEF) and inhibition of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). A 1:1 BPAM-Al(3+) complex confirmed by job’s plot and HRMS with a binding constant of 6.37 × 10(4) M(- 1), and the detection limit for Al(3+) was as low as 1.59 × 10(- 7) M. BPAM was successfully applied in real sample detection and assessing the existence of Al(3+) by a colorimetric method on filter paper. Furthermore, the fluorescent signals of BPAM were designed to construct an INHIBIT molecular logic gate.

Concepts: Electron, Spectroscopy, Molecular biology, Analytical chemistry, Real number, Paper, Filter paper, Logic gates


Strong surface (metal) enhanced fluorescence (SEF or MEF) is observed from clusters and single E coli bacteria cells labeled with Carbon nanodots (CDs), which were synthesized from date pits. The enhancement factor (EF) for SEF of the cell clusters were close to 50 for both 533 and 633 nm laser excitation wavelength. Those EFs are ratios of emission peak areas from CD labeled cell clusters on gold film to the peak areas of the same batch cell clusters on glass substrate. SEF with 633 nm excitation performed better than SEF with 532 nm excitation, achieving higher fluorescence intensity and much higher contrast. The contrast as high as 66 for cell clusters on gold film is a ratio of fluorescent emission peak area measured at the CD labeled cell clusters to the fluorescent peak area measured at unlabeled cell clusters (autofluorescence) on the same substrate. The contrast with the background (S/N) or the ratio of fluorescent peak area measured at bacteria cells to area measured at bare substrate was as high as 200. This report may pave a way for the broader application of surface enhanced fluorescence and especially metal enhanced fluorescence imaging of CD labeled cells and other biological objects. Graphical abstract Carbon dots, synthesized from dates, are used for direct staining of E coli cells. Emission fluorescent spectroscopy of those CD labelled cells on gold film and glass, demonstrated enhancement factor about 50 for emission on gold as compared to glass, Excitation at 633 nm appears far superior to excitation at 532 nm in terms of contrast (up to 67) with unlabeled cells /control due to decrease in auto fluorescence of cells. Maximum Signal to noise ratio is 200.

Concepts: DNA, Fluorescence, Bacteria, Enzyme, Light, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Escherichia coli, Ratio


Novel fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) for cobalt ions sensing were synthesized from 2,4,6-tris(2'-pyridyl)-s-triazine (TPTZ) and citric acid by microwave-assisted method in one pot. This sensor was water soluble, simple, sensitive and cheap. The size of the CDs was determined from transmission electron microscope image and was in the range of 10 nm. Under optimized experimental conditions, this luminescent system had stable response for Co (II) over a concentration range from 0.4 to 50 µM with a detection limit as low as 230 nM. The proposed method showed good sensitivity and selectivity with respect to interference ions. Finally, this system was used for Co (II) determination in tap water, river water and mineral water and B12 ampoule samples.

Concepts: Fluorescence, Electron, Electron microscope, Acid, Water, Hydrogen, Sensitivity and specificity, Mineral


Nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) were synthesized though a facile, economical and straightforward hydrothermal method by using polyacrylamide as both carbon and nitrogen sources. The as-prepared N-CQDs offered high quantum yield of 23.1%, exhibited good water solubility and fluorescence properties. Moreover, the N-CQDs can be used as effective probes for sensitive and selective detection of dopamine. Fluorescence of N-CQDs was effectively quenched after the addition of dopamine owing to dopamine would be transformed into dopamine-quinone under alkaline conditions. A good linear relationship between fluorescence quenching and the concentration of dopamine in the range 0.1-200 μM was obtained with a low detection limit of 0.05 μM. The proposed method showed high selectivity for dopamine in the presence of potential interfering species. Moreover, this method was successfully applied to the determination of DA in urine sample with satisfactory recoveries.

Concepts: Fluorescence, Spectroscopy, Oxygen, Water, Quantum dot, Agonist, Dark quencher, Quenching