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Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of family nursing

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Technology-dependent (TD) children require complex care and are dependent on medical technology. Approximately 75% of families, in the United States, who are caring for a TD child, also care for a well child. Well siblings are likely to be affected by the experience of living with a TD sibling as the process of family normalization is described as a family affair. The experiences of well siblings are not well described. The purpose of this qualitative analysis was to describe the experiences of well siblings who are living in a family with a TD child. Mothers were interviewed about the experiences of their well children and were digitally audio recorded. The interviews were transcribed, and content analysis was conducted. Content analysis from the interviews revealed the major themes of well sibling adjustment within the family unit, upside (altruistic, prosocial behaviors) and downside (negative internal and external processing behaviors). These results can be applied to advance the delivery of family nursing care offered to these families.

Concepts: Family, Scientific method, Psychology, Research methods, United States, Evaluation methods, Mother, Sibling

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Housing instability threatens the health and well-being of millions of families across the United States, yet little is known about the characteristics or housing trajectories of at-risk families. To address this gap in our understanding of family risk for housing instability and homelessness, we undertook a qualitative descriptive study utilizing a convenience sample of 16 mothers recruited from a housing service agency living in Detroit and receiving emergency services to avoid homelessness. Participants completed the Brief Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), then narrated their life events and reasons for housing instability and disclosed desired interventions for homelessness prevention. Data analysis reveals that women experienced high rates of previously undisclosed trauma, broken family relationships, early parenting responsibilities, social isolation, and system failures that contributed to recurrent episodes of housing instability. We argue that housing instability is a symptom of multiple chronic underlying issues that need more than a temporary financial patch.

Concepts: Family, United States, Qualitative research, Interpersonal relationship, Knowledge, Mother, Kinship terminology, Cousin

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Parenting stress increases in the presence of serious-acute or chronic pediatric health conditions, potentially triggering negative outcomes for families. Parenting stress reduction interventions have been widely disseminated. The current review describes the types, components, and outcomes of these interventions in diverse pediatric populations. A systematic literature search yielded 26 experimental and quasi-experimental studies describing such interventions. Quality assessment was conducted by two doctorally prepared nursing researchers using the Downs and Black’s checklist for randomized and nonrandomized studies of health care interventions. Interventions were categorized as follows: interventions with supporting and cognitive components (n = 3), interventions with empowerment and skill development components (n = 18), interventions targeted to children’s condition (n = 9), and interventions focusing on the parent-child relationship (n = 5). Most interventions reduced immediate parenting stress levels (n = 23), but failed to demonstrate long-term gains. Future family interventions should target long-term parenting stress, while focusing on specific family needs across pediatric conditions.

Concepts: Family, Health care, Medicine, Health, Redox, Electrochemistry, Management, The Downs

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Given the high symptom burden and low survivability of lung cancer, patients and their spouses have been found to experience poor mental health. The current study examined the roles of dyadic appraisal and dyadic coping on the mental health of 78 couples living with non-small cell lung cancer. Multilevel modeling revealed that spouses, on average, reported significantly worse mental health than patients. Dyadic appraisal and dyadic coping played important roles in predicting mental health, controlling for known developmental and contextual covariates. Dyadic appraisal of the patient’s pain and fatigue was significantly associated with spouse mental health, albeit in opposite directions. Dyadic coping significantly predicted patient mental health. The study underlines the need to incorporate routine screening of both patient and spouse mental health, and highlights the complex role of appraisal within the couple in a life-threatening context. Viewing the couple as a unit, rather than separate individuals, raises important awareness about the role of disparate illness appraisals and coping strategies within the dyad on the health of both members. Nurses are particularly well situated to engage in a collaborative family-focused approach to the couple with cancer that promotes communication and health.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Lung cancer, Non-small cell lung carcinoma, Cancer staging, Patient, Illness, Medical test

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In this Part 2 of a three-part research paper, we further our interpretations from our hermeneutic study examining how having a child who has experienced cancer had an impact on the relationship between the parents. In Part 1, we identified the focus of the study and provided background to the topic. We also described the research question, method, and design before offering an interpretive analysis of couples whose relationships survived, thrived, or demised. In this article, we extend the interpretations under an overarching theme of “taking one for the team.” Here, we discuss issues of changes in focus and roles, and the notions of tag teaming, protection, intimacy, and grieving. We examine the phenomenon of putting relationships on hold, then finding reclamation later. In Part 3, we offer implications of these findings for other parents in similar situations and for health care professionals working with these families.

Concepts: Family, Health care, Health care provider, Research, Interpersonal relationship, Mother, Father, Professional wrestling

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This article is the third part of a hermeneutic research study examining the impact of childhood cancer experiences on the parental relationship. In Part 1, we offered an exploration of the phenomenon with background literature; a description of the research question, method, and design; and finally a discussion of relationships that survived, thrived, or demised, with an emphasis on the notions of difference and trading. In Part 2, we furthered the interpretations to look at the complexities of issues such as teams, roles, focus, protection, intimacy, grieving, putting relationships on hold, and reclaiming them. In this article, we discuss the advice that the participants offered us and how that advice might have implications for other parents in similar situations and health care professionals working with families experiencing childhood cancer.

Concepts: Family, Health care, Health care provider, Healthcare, Parent, Interpersonal relationship, Mother, Father

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This article is the first of a three-part report of a research study that used hermeneutic inquiry to examine the effects of childhood cancer on the relationship between the parents of the child. In Part 1, we identity the topic of investigation and the relevant literature; describe the research question, method, and design; and begin our interpretations of the data with a focus on the couples who remained together and those who experienced relationship demise. In this analysis, we discovered that issues of difference and trading played a strong role in how the couples fared in their relationships. In Part 2 of this series, we focus on further interpretations, and in Part 3, we discuss the implications of the study for other parents and for health care professionals.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Relationship, Parent, Knowledge

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Much has been written about the global implementation of the Calgary Family Assessment and Intervention Models (CFAM/CFIM) and the application of these practice models in various clinical settings. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief update on the background of CFAM/CFIM, and the current applications of the models as evidenced in the English-language literature. Little has been written about the use of CFAM/CFIM in a personal context, however. As originators of the models, we offer our own narratives and reflections about the reciprocity between the personal and professional applications of our models and the ways that our personal experiences have extended our understanding about the utility of the models for clinical practice with families.

Concepts: Family, Linguistics, The Current, Extended family, System software, Application software

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Illness beliefs affect how individuals and families deal with illness. A valid and reliable instrument has not yet been developed to measure “illness beliefs” in family nursing research and clinical practice. This article describes the purpose, reliability, validity, and the potential clinical and research applications of a new instrument, the Iceland-Family Illness Beliefs Questionnaire (ICE-FIBQ). The ICE-FIBQ is a short, self-report measure of an individual’s beliefs about illness. Drawing from an advanced nursing practice model called the Illness Beliefs Model, the instrument was developed to measure illness beliefs about (a) cause of illness, that is, etiology; (b) control of illness on family and control of family on illness; © effect of illness on the individual and family; (d) illness suffering; and (e) support received from health care professionals during illness. The instrument was tested on 139 family caregivers of adolescents/youth with an illness or a disorder. Exploratory factor analysis reduced the original questionnaire from eight to seven items with a one-factor solution (Cronbach’s α = .780). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the one-factor solution (Cronbach’s α = .789). Further research is needed to determine concurrent validity with other illness belief/illness perception scales and if the instrument is sensitive to capture change in illness beliefs following family nursing intervention.

Concepts: Health care, Educational psychology, Psychometrics, Factor analysis, General intelligence factor, Validity, Reliability, Confirmatory factor analysis

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This article reports the development and preliminary testing of a new scale named “Partnership Scale for Primary Family Caregivers Caring for Patients With Dementia” that measures the ability of primary family caregivers to establish partnerships while providing care for patients with dementia in Japan. The first draft of the scale was developed using qualitative data from interviews with five primary family caregivers; a pool of 39 items was created through a review process with dementia care experts and researchers. An exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted with data from 261 primary family caregivers who completed the instrument. This resulted in a multidimensional scale that consists of three factors with 13 items. The suitability of the model and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values (1, 1) obtained by the test-retest method satisfied statistical standards. The criterion-related validity of the scale was significantly correlated to an external reference, which was the desired outcome. However, some subscales exhibited low internal consistency, demonstrating the need for further research.

Concepts: Statistics, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, Educational psychology, Psychometrics, Factor analysis, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, Covariance and correlation, Confirmatory factor analysis