SciCombinator

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Journal: Journal of endocrinological investigation

28

Background Iodine deficiency (ID) still now represents one of the major worldwide health problems. ID is the result of insufficient dietary iodine intake. Iodine is an essential micronutrient but scarcely presents in nature. The main strategy for the correction of iodine deficiency is the fortification of table salt with iodide/iodine but Italy is far from reaching an iodized salt use higher 90% of population. Also because of the evidence for the risk on blood pressure, it is recommended to decrease the daily salt intake to less than 5g/d. An opportunity to increase the iodine intake is the possibility to introduce iodine fortification in the industrial processing foods. Aim The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a diet containing iodized foods enriched during industry processing with protected iodized salt (Presal®). Subjects and Methods The evaluation of increasing of iodine intake was assessed by measuring the urinary iodine excretion (UIE) in 30 healthy volunteers who added to own alimentary habits a basket of iodine enriched foodstuffs. Results Median UIE at baseline was 105 mcg/L, 156 mcg/L during the enriched diet and 90.5 mcg/L a week after withdrawal of enriched diet. Conclusions Stable iodized salt (Presal®) represent a good way to introduce iodine with the normal diet without increasing the normal consumption of salt for the healthy problems related to the blood pressure. The availability of stable iodized salt (Presal®) allows the preservation of iodine after cooking.

Concepts: Nutrition, Sodium chloride, Thyroid, Normal distribution, Iodine, Salt, Iodine deficiency, Edible salt

28

Background. Hirsutism is defined as the presence of excessive terminal hair in androgen-dependent areas of a woman´s body. Regarding this it has been demonstrated that Lavender and Tea tree oils have antiandrogenic activities. Aim. To evaluate therapy based on Lavender and Tea tree oils in women suffering from mild idiopathic hirsutism. Subjects and Methods. A prospective, open-label, placebo controlled, randomized study was performed: women affected by mild idiopathic hirsutism were randomly assigned to receive oil spray containing Lavender and Tea tree oils (group T) (n=12) or placebo (group P) (n=12) twice a day for 3 months in areas affected by hirsutism. Evaluation of hirsutism was carried out at baseline and after 3 months by Ferriman- Gallwey score and by measuring hair diameter taken from some body areas. A hematological and hormonal evaluation was carried out at baseline and after 3 months. Results. No significant variations were found in any of the hormones studied in groups T and P between baseline and after 3 months. A statistically significant decrease of hirsutism total score and of hair diameter was found in group T, while no statistically significant difference in these two parameters was observed in group P; in group T percentual reduction of hair diameter was significantly greater than in group P. Conclusions. Lavender and Tea tree oils applied locally on skin could be effective in reducing mild idiopathic hirsutism; this treatment could represent a safe, economic and practical instrument in the cure of this disease.

Concepts: Statistics, Hormone, Randomized controlled trial, Statistical significance, Randomness, Hirsutism, Tea tree oil, Essential oil

27

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a key element in thyroid hormone biosynthesis. It is the substrate used by thyroid peroxidase for oxidation and incorporation of iodine into thyroglobulin, a process known as organification. The main enzymes composing the H2O2- generating system are the dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) and the recently described DUOX maturation factor 2 (DUOXA2). Defects in these reactions lead to reduced thyroid hormone synthesis and hypothyroidism, with consequent increased TSH secretion and goiter. Since the first report in 2002 of DUOX2 mutations causing congenital hypothryoidism (CH), to date 25 different mutations have been described. Affected patients show a positive perchlorate discharge test and high phenotypic variability, ranging from transient to permanent forms of CH. Up to now, only two cases of CH due to DUOXA2 defects have been published. They also suggest the existence of a great genotype-phenotype variability. The phenotypic expression is probably influenced by genetic background and environmental factors. DUOX and DUOXA constitute a redundant system in which DUOX1/DUOXA1 can at least partially replace the function of DUOX2/DUOXA2. Furthermore, increased nutritional iodide could ensure a better use of H2O2 provided by DUOX1.

Concepts: Oxygen, Redox, Hydrogen peroxide, Hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Thyroid, Thyroid hormone, Iodine

26

Two crucial aspects of obesity prevention are early childhood and school-based interventions. The main purpose of this systematic review wass to evaluate the efficacy and the feasibility of school-based interventions performed in primary schools.

Concepts: Childhood, Intervention, Primary school, Primary education, School, Junior school

26

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of post-operative radioiodine ablation with 1,850 MBq after recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) administration in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). We also aimed to assess the prognostic role of several patient features on the outcome of ablation.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Lung cancer, Medical terms, Patient, Types of cancer, Thyroid disease, Thyroid neoplasm

25

Control of thyroid function in hyperthyroid women during pregnancy is based on antithyroid drugs (ATD) [propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole (MMI)]. While a teratogenic effect has been suggested for MMI and, more recently, for PTU, a clear demonstration is still lacking. Aim of this study was to assess the safety of ATD during pregnancy.

Concepts: Hyperthyroidism, Thyroid, Graves' disease, Triiodothyronine, Methimazole, Propylthiouracil, Antithyroid drugs

25

This study explored the possible association between the use of two typical 5ARIs (finasteride and dutasteride) and the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH).

Concepts: Prostate cancer, Testosterone, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Prostate, Acute coronary syndrome, Dihydrotestosterone, Finasteride, Dutasteride

24

The relation between therapy options for Graves' disease (GD) and the course of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) are still controversial. Our aim was to compare the occurrence of development or worsening of GO in patients who were treated with antithyroid drugs (ATDs) or radioactive iodine (RAI) or thyroidectomy (TX).

Concepts: Thyroid disease, Hyperthyroidism, Thyroid, Graves' disease, Thyroidectomy, Goitre, Graves' ophthalmopathy, Antithyroid drugs

24

Corticosteroid agents (CA) are widely used in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) either as concomitant treatment with active agents such as docetaxel, cabazitaxel and abiraterone or in a palliative setting, predominantly due to their anti-inflammatory activity. However, the chronic use of CA has numerous side effects, especially in case of steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency. Furthermore, the latest clinical and preclinical data demonstrate that CA themselves are likely to promote tumour progression in certain populations of patients with mCRPC. Therefore, the role of CA in advanced disease should be carefully weighed for each patient and their withdrawal should be considered in some patients. This is necessary, especially in clinical trials that need good performance status patients to evaluate the activity and the safety of emerging drugs in mCRPC that do not require the concurrent use of CA. In oncology, there is no consensus on an algorithm of gradual steroid tapering and frequently the approach to this procedure is empirical. An algorithm is presented in this article based on clinical observations. Prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the above-proposed algorithm in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Chemotherapy, Prostate cancer, Corticosteroid, Cortisol, Adrenal insufficiency

22

To investigate whether growth hormone (GH) could improve pregnancy rates of patients with thin endometrium by clinical study and laboratory experiments.

Concepts: Immune system, Prolactin, Effectiveness, Growth hormone, Experiment, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Endocrine gland