Journal: Journal of dermatological science
Tight junctions (TJs) contribute to the epithelial barrier function by preventing leakage of solutes through the intercellular space. In the skin, TJs occur in the stratum granulosum (SG), where claudin-1 and claudin-4 are expressed as adhesion molecules of TJs. Claudin-1-deficient (Cldn1(-/-)) mice die within one day of birth accompanied by excessive transepidermal water loss, indicating a critical role of TJs in the epidermal barrier function. However, it has been debated whether the impaired TJ function in the SG also affects the stratum corneum (SC) barrier function or whether it results in skin barrier defects despite a normal SC barrier.
As interest in skin beauty increases, the development of new skin whitening agents has attracted substantial attention; however, the action mechanism of the agents developed so far remains largely unknown. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is commonly being used to reduce melanin synthesis in patients with melasma and also used as a raw material for functional whitening cosmetics, although its action mechanism is poorly understood. Autophagy has been well known to be essential for tissue homeostasis, adaptation to starvation, and removal of dysfunctional organelles or pathogens. Recent studies have shown that autophagy regulators might have prominent roles in the initial formation stage of the melanosome, a lysosome-related organelle synthesizing melanin pigments. However, there is still no direct evidence showing a relationship between the activation of the autophagy system and the melanogenesis.
Aberrant expression of microRNA-664 was involved in tumor growth and metastasis of various cancers. The specific role of miR-664 in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is yet to be elucidated.
The term “exposome” describes the totality of exposures to which an individual is subjected from conception to death. It includes both external and internal factors as well as the human body’s response to these factors. Current exposome research aims to understand the effects all factors have on specific organs, yet today, the exposome of human skin has not received major attention and a corresponding definition is lacking. This review was compiled with the collaboration of European scientists, specialized in either environmental medicine or skin biology. A comprehensive review of the existing literature was performed using PubMed. The search was restricted to exposome factors and skin aging. Key review papers and all relevant, epidemiological, in vitro, ex vivo and clinical studies were analyzed to determine the key elements of the exposome influencing skin aging. Here we propose a definition of the skin aging exposome. It is based on a summary of the existing scientific evidence for the role of exposome factors in skin aging. We also identify future research needs which concern knowledge about the interaction of distinct exposomal factors with each other and the resulting net effects on skin aging and suggest some protective measures.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and causes chloracne in humans. The pathogenesis and role of AhR in chloracne remains incompletely understood.
Although recent studies suggest that eczema in early childhood is important in the development of food allergy, the importance of the timing of eczema onset has not been fully clarified.
Mosquito bites are skin irritating reactions, which usually resolve spontaneously without intensive medical care. However, in certain situations, mosquito bites may form a more vicious reaction, sometimes accompanying fever and systemic symptoms. In such cases, the presence of rare hematological disorders, abnormalities in eosinophils and/or association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may underlie. Importantly, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB), which is characterized by necrotic skin reactions to mosquito bites with various systemic symptoms, is often observed in association with EBV infection and natural killer (NK) cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Exaggerated skin reaction to mosquito bites is also seen in Wells' syndrome. While strong Th2-skewing immune dysregulation is apparent in the patients, they also show robust CD4(+) T cell proliferation in response to mosquito salivary gland extracts, indicating close association between Wells' syndrome and mosquito bites. Similar skin reaction to mosquito bites is also noticed in certain types of B cell neoplasm, although the role of B cells in this peculiar reaction to mosquito bites is yet to be elucidated. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge of exaggerated reaction toward mosquito bites seen in conjunction with these unique hematological disorders, and examine the scientific studies and observations reported in previous literatures to organize our current understanding of the pathogenesis of this distinct disorder.
Dietary milk phospholipids (MPLs) increase hydration of the stratum corneum and reduced transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in hairless mice fed a standard diet. However, the mechanism by which MPLs improve skin barrier functions has yet to be established.
Ambient particulate matters (PMs) are known as inducers that adversely affect a variety of human organs.
Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a commensal bacterium which is possibly involved in acne inflammation. The saturated fatty acid, lauric acid (C12:0) has been shown to possess antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties against P. acnes. Little is known concerning the potential effects of its decanoic counterpart, capric acid (C10:0).