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Journal: Journal of dental education

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Dental hygiene students' performance in oral radiology courses may give an early indication of their readiness prior to taking the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination (NBDHE). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between dental hygiene students' performance in an oral radiology lecture course and their performance on the NBDHE. Data were collected for all 117 dental hygiene students at Texas A&M University College of Dentistry from 2006 to 2009 who took the NBDHE during their second year of the program. Their final grades and scores on three written section examinations in an oral radiology course taken in their first year were compared with their overall NBDHE scores and raw scores on the oral radiology and case study sections. Moderate correlations (0.3

Concepts: Retrospective, Correlation and dependence, The Final, Dentistry, Dental hygienist, Examination, The Strongest, Course

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The aim of this study was to investigate advocacy actions of dental hygiene program alumni who had completed a Legislative Advocacy Project (LAP) when they were students in the undergraduate or graduate program. Five variables were assessed: participation, frequency, perceived barriers, engagement, and mentorship. Alumni of the undergraduate and graduate programs were compared regarding frequency of and barriers encountered to legislative advocacy actions. A descriptive-comparative research design was used with quantitative and qualitative analysis. A convenience sample of 157 alumni who had completed a seven-week LAP at Idaho State University between 2008 and 2013 were invited to complete a 52-item author-designed online questionnaire in 2015. The response rate was 41.4%. The results showed a significant difference for participation prior to and after the LAP (df=12, X2=28.28, p=0.005). Most respondents, however, did not participate in legislative actions. There was a significant difference between the two groups for two frequency items: subscribing to online listservs (p=0.001) and contacting political representatives or staff (p=0.003). The three greatest barriers were time, financial resources, and testifying. The analysis found a significant difference between the two groups for the barrier of interest in advocating (p=0.05). In the qualitative analysis, themes emerged about engagement factors (collective efforts and advocacy commitment) and mentorship (mentoring experiences). Advocacy actions after graduation improved, but implementation of actions was challenging due to competing barriers. The results of this study may be useful in identifying key components of advocacy education that should be part of training programs.

Concepts: Research methods, Qualitative research, Quantitative research, College, Graduate school, Educational stages, Postgraduate education, Bachelor's degree

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Progress testing provides a longitudinal assessment of the development and sustainability of students' knowledge at regular intervals over the duration of an educational program. Comparisons of performance on successive tests are used to monitor growth in knowledge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of progress testing in an undergraduate program for dental therapy and hygiene (DTH) students in the United Kingdom as the main tool for academic assessment. Data were collected for progress tests of all 38 DTH students from 2015 to 2017. Each test consisted of 100 single best answer multiple-choice items with accompanying vignette. The students chose their answer from five options. A score of 1 was awarded for a correct answer, -0.25 for an incorrect answer, and 0 for don’t know (DK). Three cohorts of DTH students were included in the study, and seven progress tests were conducted over a period of three years. Analysis of performance showed growth in knowledge across successive years, with the largest increase in knowledge in the transition from Year 1 to Year 2 and concomitant reduction in incorrect and DK responses. This was a pioneering study to report the establishment and use of progress testing among undergraduate DTH students. Notwithstanding the challenges involved, the study found merit in further exploring the use of progress testing for students in the DTH program.

Concepts: Education, United Kingdom, Educational psychology, Multiple choice, The Establishment, Undergraduate education, Yahoo! Answers, Knowledge Search

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Uncivil behavior by a faculty member or student can threaten a classroom environment and make it less conducive to learning. The aim of this study was to explore faculty behaviors that dental faculty and students perceive to be uncivil when exhibited in the classroom and clinic. In 2015, all faculty, administrators, and students at a single academic dental institution were invited to participate in an electronic survey that used a five-point Likert scale for respondents to indicate their agreement that 33 faculty behaviors were uncivil. Response rates were 49% for faculty and 59% for students. Significant differences were found between student and faculty responses on 22 of the 33 behavioral items. None of the three category composite scores differed significantly for students compared to faculty respondents. The category composite scores were not significantly associated with gender, ethnicity, or age for faculty or students. Overall, this study found significant differences between students and faculty about perceived uncivil faculty behaviors, though not for categories of behaviors.

Concepts: Psychology, Perception, University, Behavior, Human behavior, Behaviorism

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Problem-based learning (PBL) is a teaching method used in medical and dental education to promote students' problem-solving skills. It may also be a viable tool for interprofessional education in which medical and dental students learn together, collaborate, and learn about, from, and with each other. The aim of this study was to compare medical and dental faculty members' attitudes about and perceptions of PBL at 12 U.S. medical and dental schools known to use PBL. In 2015, 111 medical and 132 dental faculty members (combined n=243) from six medical and six dental schools completed a survey containing ten statements and an open comment section. The response rate was 42% of those who received the survey. In the results, the medical faculty participants showed significantly higher enthusiasm for and agreement with PBL benefits than did the dental faculty participants (p˂0.05). The two groups agreed that PBL should be used to supplement conventional teaching (p>0.05). There were no opposite attitudes or contrasts found between the two groups with regards to PBL. The strongest themes expressed by both groups were that PBL should not be used as the sole method of instruction and that students needed a solid foundation in the subject prior to engaging in PBL.

Concepts: Psychology, Education, Physician, Educational psychology, Skill, Learning, School, Teacher

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The aim of this study was to compare the perceived competence for treating prosthodontic patients of two samples of fourth-year dental students: those educated using traditional methodologies and those educated using problem-based learning (PBL). Two cohorts of fourth-year dental students at a dental school in Spain were surveyed: the traditional methods cohort (n=46) was comprised of all students in academic years 2012 and 2013, and the PBL cohort (n=57) was comprised of all students in academic years 2014 and 2015. Students in both cohorts reported the number of prosthodontic treatments they carried out per year and their perceived level of competence in performing such treatments. The results showed that the average number of treatments performed was similar for the two cohorts, except the number of metal-based removable partial dentures was significantly higher for students in the traditional (0.8±1.0) than the PBL (0.4±0.6) cohort. The level of perceived competence to treat complete denture patients for the combined cohorts was significantly higher (7.3±1.1) than that for partial acrylic dentures (6.7±1.5) and combined dentures (5.7±1.3). Students' clinical competence in prosthodontics mainly depended on number of treatments performed as the operator as well as the assistant. Students in the traditional methods cohort considered themselves to be significantly more competent at treating patients for removable partial and fixed prostheses (7.8±1.1 and 7.6±1.1, respectively) than did students in the PBL cohort (6.4±1.5 and 6.6±1.5, respectively). Overall, however, the study found that practical experiences were more important than the teaching method used to achieve students' perceived competence.

Concepts: Education, Dentures, Restorative dentistry, Removable partial denture, American Dental Association, Prosthodontology, Prosthodontics, Palatal obturator

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With a significant need for more general dentists to provide care for pediatric patients, previous studies have found that community-based clinical training experience with children increased dental students' willingness to provide care to pediatric patients after graduation. The aim of our study was to determine the impact of community-based clinical training with pediatric patients on dental students' self-perceived confidence in treating pediatric patients, both overall and related to specific procedures. Of the total 105 fourth-year dental students at one U.S. dental school invited to participate in the study in academic year 2011-12, 76 completed the survey about their community-based dental education (CBDE), for a 72% response rate. Over half of the respondents (55%) reported feeling more confident in treating pediatric patients after their rotations. The increase in confidence was not associated with demographics. The placement of sealants (p=0.0022) and experience in giving local anesthesia (p=0.0008) were the two procedures most strongly associated with the increase in confidence. Also, these students received more experience in pulp therapy, extractions, and treating children up to three years of age during their community-based rotations than in the school-based clinic. In this study, greater exposure to pediatric dental clinical experiences during CBDE increased the students' confidence in treating pediatric patients. These results suggest that community-based experiences are useful in supplementing the school-based pediatric clinical experience, including increasing entry-level dentists' confidence in treating pediatric patients.

Concepts: Physician, Dental implant, Dentistry, Oral and maxillofacial surgery

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Community-based dental education (CBDE) allows dental students to be immersed in community settings and provide care to populations that are underserved. Exposure to those groups during training may impact provider attitudes, which may be strengthened by supporting students' reflection and exploration of their own attitudes. The aim of this study was to describe the implementation and preliminary results of a pilot longitudinal reflection curriculum integrated into a community-based clinical experience (CBCE) for senior dental students at one U.S. dental school and to report the impact of the reflection curriculum and CBCE on student experiences with populations that are underserved. In academic year 2015-16, all 35 senior dental students at one U.S. dental school were invited to complete an 11-item survey before and after completing a 12-week CBCE with integrated, longitudinal online reflections. Students received feedback from a faculty member after each reflection. All 35 students completed the survey, for a 100% response rate. After the CBCE, the students reported improved clinical efficiency and increased confidence in treatment planning and in treating dental emergencies and dentally anxious patients. They also reported improved understanding of the structure and relevance of community health centers, the role of different health care team members, and the impact of health policy. There was no significant difference in future plans to work with groups that are underserved. These results suggest that the CBCE and reflection curriculum had a positive impact on the students' clinical confidence as well as expanding their understanding of the broader oral health care delivery system. To address persistent oral health disparities, dental schools should continue to adopt CBDE programming that will prepare providers to effectively care for populations that are underserved.

Concepts: Health care, Health economics, Medicine, Health disparities, Dental implant, Dentistry, Oral and maxillofacial surgery

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Since 2000, reports have documented the challenges faced by many Americans in receiving oral health care and the consequences of inadequate care such as high levels of dental caries among many U.S. children. To help address this problem, many dental schools now include community-based dental education (CBDE) in their curricula, placing students in extramural clinics where they provide care in underserved communities. CBDE is intended to both broaden the education of future oral health professionals and expand care for patients in community clinics. The aim of this study was to develop a three-year profile of the patients seen and the care provided by students at extramural clinics associated with one U.S. dental school. Three student cohorts participated in the rotations: final-year students in the Doctor of Dental Surgery, Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene, and Master of Dental Therapy programs. The study was a retrospective analysis of data retrieved from the school’s database for three consecutive academic years. The data included patients' demographics and special health care needs status (based on information collected by students from their patients) and procedures students performed while on rotations. For the three-year period, the results showed a total of 43,128 patients were treated by 418 student providers. Approximately 25% of all encounters were with pediatric patients. Students completed 5,908 child prophylaxis, 5,386 topical fluoride varnish, and 7,678 sealant procedures on pediatric patients. Annually, 7% of the total patients treated had special health care needs. The results show that these students in CBDE rotations provided a substantial amount of oral health care at extramural sites and gained additional experience in caring for a diverse population of patients and performing a wide range of procedures.

Concepts: Physician, Dental caries, Dental implant, Dentistry, Fluoride therapy, Dental surgery, Halitosis, Dental therapist

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While pipeline programs for students from underrepresented minority groups have been established at the high school and college levels, fewer programs have been developed for middle school students. In an effort to reach this cohort, the University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry embarked on a grassroots collaborative pipeline program with two distinct segments: Urban Impressions and Dental Imprint. Their purpose is to expose Detroit-area seventh and eighth grade students to careers in dentistry, provide oral health education, and introduce role models. The aim of this pilot study was to determine outcomes for the middle school participants in Urban Impressions (n=86) and Dental Imprint (n=68). Both segments featured hands-on dental activities at the dental school. Outcomes were assessed by pretest-posttest surveys. Across the three cohorts, a total of 86 students participated in one or more sessions, with 57 completing the pre- and post-program surveys, for a 66% response rate. The results showed that the Dental Imprint respondents' knowledge of oral health, dental admissions, and specialties increased by an average 26% over three years. The gain in knowledge for each cohort was statistically significant (p<0.001). Overall, 91% of Urban Impressions and 95% of Dental Imprint respondents were positive about the value of the program. Thirty-one of 57 Urban Impressions respondents indicated interest in dentistry as a career following the program. These results suggest that the two segments of this program are meeting their goals of increasing middle grade students' awareness of oral health professions including dentistry and providing access to role models. Institutions may benefit from the description of strategies used by this program to address challenges related to establishing early pipeline programs.

Concepts: Middle school, High school, Dental implant, College, Program, Dentistry, Oral and maxillofacial surgery