Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of clinical medicine research


The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a single prophylactic dose of amoxicillin and/or dexamethasone in preventing postoperative complications (PC) after a surgical removal of a single mandibular third molar (M3).

Concepts: Pharmacology, Medicine, Clinical trial, Randomized controlled trial, Clinical research, Placebo, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Wisdom teeth


The Nanoduct(®) device has acceptable diagnostic accuracy, but there is not enough systematic data supporting its usage in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF).

Concepts: Oxygen, Pulmonology, Blood, Medical terms, Cystic fibrosis, Arterial blood gas, Electrolyte, Blood test


Red cell distribution width (RDW) is a parameter of the standard full blood count tests, measuring the size variability of erythrocytes. Recently, its elevation has been proven to reliably reflect the extent systematic inflammation, mainly in cardiometabolic diseases. Up to date, its association with solid malignancies has been scarcely investigated.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Anemia, Complete blood count, Mean corpuscular volume, Red blood cell distribution width


Heat is commonly used in physical therapy following exercise induced delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Most heat modalities used in a clinical setting for DOMS are only applied for 5 to 20 minutes. This minimal heat exposure causes little, if any, change in deep tissue temperature. For this reason, long duration dry chemical heat packs are used at home to slowly and safely warm tissue and reduce potential heat damage while reducing pain associated from DOMS. Clinically, it has been shown that moist heat penetrates deep tissue faster than dry heat. Therefore, in home use chemical moist heat may be more efficacious than dry heat to provide pain relief and reduce tissue damage following exercise DOMS. However, chemical moist heat only lasts for 2 hours compared to the 8 hours duration of chemical dry heat packs. The purpose of this study was to compare the beneficial effect of dry heat versus moist heat on 100 young subjects after exercise induce DOMS.

Concepts: Delayed onset muscle soreness


Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome. The influence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection on clinical features in women with this disorder has not been studied. Therefore, we determined the association of T. gondii infection with symptoms and signs in women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Concepts: Toxoplasmosis, Toxoplasma gondii, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder


The aim of the review was to summarize the literature over the last 25 years regarding bicarbonate administration in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A PubMed search was conducted using the terms “bicarbonates” and “cardiac arrest”, limited to human studies and reviews published in English (or at least with a meaningful abstract in English) in the last 25 years. Clinical and experimental data raised questions regarding the safety and effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB) administration during cardiac arrest. Earlier advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines recommended routine bicarbonate administration as part of the ACLS algorithm, but recent guidelines no longer recommend its use. The debate in the literature is ongoing, but at the present time, SB administration is only recommended for cardiac arrest related to hypokalemia or overdose of tricyclic antidepressants. Several studies challenge the assumption that bicarbonate administration is beneficial for treatment of acidosis in cardiac arrest. At the present time, there is a trend against using bicarbonates in cardiac arrest, and this trend is supported by guidelines published by professional societies and organizations.

Concepts: Present, Time


Aging-related sarcopenia means that muscle mass, strength, and physical performance tend to decline with age, and malnutrition is associated with sarcopenia. Therefore, nutritional interventions may make an important contribution to prevent the development of sarcopenia. Here I reviewed published articles about the effects of nutritional factors on sarcopenia in elderly people. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic factors associated with obesity and diabetes induce the progression of sarcopenia. However, the effectiveness and safety of caloric restriction for sarcopenia remained unclear. Protein intake and physical activity are the main anabolic stimuli for muscle protein synthesis. As optimal dietary protein intake, 1.0 - 1.2 g/kg (body weight)/day with an optimal repartition over each daily meal or 25 - 30 g of high quality protein per meal were recommended to prevent sarcopenia, which was supported by some observational studies. Protein supplementation using cheese and milk protein, essential amino acids, leucine, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and vitamin D has been investigated as a potential supplement to improve muscle quality in sarcopenic elderly people.

Concepts: Protein, Amino acid, Metabolism, Nutrition, Obesity, Muscle, Essential amino acid, Muscle atrophy


N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have anti-inflammatory effects and neuronal protective functions and may benefit prevention of dementia; however, the epidemiological evidence is very limited. Therefore, the literature about the association between n-3 PUFA and dementia was searched, by using Pubmed. In the analyses of observational studies, n-3 PUFA has been reported to be beneficially associated with dementia in 17 studies; however, the beneficial association between n-3 PUFA and dementia was denied by three studies. In the analyses of intervention studies, n-3 PUFA supplementation was beneficially associated with dementia in eight studies; however, five studies reported the negligible effect of n-3 PUFA for dementia. N-3 PUFA may improve Alzheimer’s disease by increasing clearance of amyloid-β peptide, neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors, and by anti-inflammatory effects. In conclusion, patients with mild memory and/or cognitive impairment can be treated by a long-term and higher intake of n-3 PUFA.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Nutrition, Fatty acids, Essential fatty acid, Omega-3 fatty acid, Eicosapentaenoic acid, Docosahexaenoic acid, Polyunsaturated fatty acid


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has increased from a few cases in a country at the beginning of the 20th century to an incidence of recording a case every 7 seconds in the world. From a rare disease it has reached the top 8 of major health problems in the world. One of the epidemiological problems of AD is the fact that authors from different countries use different reporting units. Some report numbers to 100,000 inhabitants, others to 1,000 inhabitants and others report the total number of cases in a country. Standardization of these reports is strictly necessary. The rise in incidence and prevalence with age is known, but interesting to see is that the incidence and prevalence do not rise in a parallel manner with age as simple logic would assume. Between the ages of 60 and 90, the incidence in men increases two times and in women 41 times, prevalence increase in men is 55.25-fold and in women 77-fold. Regarding the women/men ratio, the incidence is 20.5-fold increased, and prevalence is merely 1.3936-fold increased. These numbers raise concerns about the evolution of the disease. Regarding mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/AD ratio, only about 1 in 2 people get AD (raising?) issues about the pathogenic disease relatedness.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Epidemiology, Disease, Infectious disease, Report, 20th century, Prevalence, Mild cognitive impairment


Levosimendan, the active enantiomer of simendan, is a calcium sensitizer developed for treatment of decompensated heart failure, exerts its effects independently of the beta adrenergic receptor and seems beneficial in cases of severe, intractable heart failure. Levosimendan is usually administered as 24-h infusion, with or without a loading dose, but dosing needs adjustment in patients with severe liver or renal dysfunction. Despite several promising reports, the role of levosimendan in critical illness has not been thoroughly evaluated. Available evidence suggests that levosimendan is a safe treatment option in critically ill patients and may reduce mortality from cardiac failure. However, data from well-designed randomized controlled trials in critically ill patients are needed to validate or refute these preliminary conclusions. This literature review is an attempt to synthesize available evidence on the role and possible benefits of levosimendan in critically ill patients with severe heart failure.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Critical thinking, Heart failure, Randomized controlled trial, Avicenna, Illness, Adrenergic receptor, Acute decompensated heart failure