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Journal: Journal of clinical immunology


Patients with primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD) typically require life-long intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy to prevent recurrent infections. The efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of a highly concentrated (20 %) Ig preparation for SC administration (IGSC 20 %) were evaluated in a prospective trial in patients with PIDD. A total of 74 patients (aged 3-83 years) received 4327 IGSC 20 % infusions over a median of 380.5 days. The rate of validated serious bacterial infections was 0.012 event/patient-year (p < 0.0001 compared with the historical control), and the annualized rate of infection was 2.41 events/patient. Median IgG trough levels were >14.5 g/l. The median maximum infusion rate was 60 ml/h/site (range 4.4-180), resulting in a median infusion duration of 0.95 h. A volume ≥30 ml was infused per site in 74.8 % of IGSC 20 % infusions. Most (84.9 %) infusions were administered using ≤2 infusion sites; for 99.8 % of infusions, there was no need to interrupt/stop administration or reduce the infusion rate. No related serious adverse event (AE) occurred during IGSC 20 % treatment; related non-serious AEs occurred at a rate of 0.036 event/infusion. The incidence of related local AEs was 0.015 event/infusion and of related systemic AEs was 0.021 event/infusion; most were mild in severity, none severe. Increased infusion rates or volumes were not associated with higher AE rates. The investigated IGSC 20 % treatment was shown to be effective and safe, enabling higher infusion rates and volumes per site compared to conventional SC treatments, resulting in fewer infusion sites and shorter infusion durations.

Concepts: Immune system, Infectious disease, Bacteria, Infection, Immunodeficiency, Infusion, Primary immunodeficiency, Infusion pump


Immune globulins for IgG supplementation have been produced for over 35 years with essentially no differentiating features regarding their specific antibody composition. Furthermore, the compositions of plasma donor pools used for IG manufacturing are not standardized. While all immune globulin products meet the specifications set by the US FDA for antibodies to pathogens like measles and polio, they have variable levels of antibodies to other important viruses and infectious pathogens, particularly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Infectious disease, Bacteria, Immunology, Intravenous immunoglobulin, Human respiratory syncytial virus, Gamma globulin


Newborn screening for SCID has revealed the association of low T cells with a number of unexpected syndromes associated with low T cells, some of which were not appreciated to have this feature. This review will discuss diagnostic approaches and the features of some of the syndromes likely to be encountered following newborn screening for immune deficiencies.

Concepts: Immune system, B cell, T cell


ᅟ: Oral administration of anti-CD3 antibodies induced regulatory T cells (Tregs) alleviating the insulin resistance and liver damage in animal models.

Concepts: White blood cell, Insulin, Glucose, Natural killer cell, T cell, T cells, Glycoprotein


Beginning in 1970, a committee was constituted under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO) to catalog primary immunodeficiencies. Twenty years later, the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) took the remit of this committee. The current report details the categorization and listing of 354 (as of February 2017) inborn errors of immunity. The growth and increasing complexity of the field have been impressive, encompassing an increasing variety of conditions, and the classification described here will serve as a critical reference for immunologists and researchers worldwide.

Concepts: AIDS, Immune system, Medicine, Immunology, Immunity, World Health Organization, Immunodeficiency, Primary immunodeficiency


PURPOSE: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by failure of T lymphocyte development and absent or very low T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), DNA byproducts of T cell maturation. Newborn screening for TRECs to identify SCID is now performed in several states using PCR of DNA from universally collected dried blood spots (DBS). In addition to infants with typical SCID, TREC screening identifies infants with T lymphocytopenia who appear healthy and in whom a SCID diagnosis cannot be confirmed. Deep sequencing was employed to find causes of T lymphocytopenia in such infants. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing and analysis were performed in infants and their parents. Upon finding deleterious mutations in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, we confirmed the diagnosis of ataxia telangiectasia (AT) in two infants and then tested archival newborn DBS of additional AT patients for TREC copy number. RESULTS: Exome sequencing and analysis led to 2 unsuspected gene diagnoses of AT. Of 13 older AT patients for whom newborn DBS had been stored, 7 samples tested positive for SCID under the criteria of California’s newborn screening program. AT children with low neonatal TRECs had low CD4 T cell counts subsequently detected (R = 0.64). CONCLUSIONS: T lymphocytopenia in newborns can be a feature of AT, as revealed by TREC screening and exome sequencing. Although there is no current cure for the progressive neurological impairment of AT, early detection permits avoidance of infectious complications, while providing information for families regarding reproductive recurrence risks and increased cancer risks in patients and carriers.

Concepts: Immune system, DNA, Protein, Infant, DNA repair, B cell, T cell receptor, Newborn screening


Mutations in Sp110 are the underlying cause of veno-occlusive disease with immunodeficiency (VODI), a combined immunodeficiency that is difficult to treat and often fatal. Because early treatment is critically important for patients with VODI, broadly usable diagnostic tools are needed to detect Sp110 protein deficiency. Several factors make establishing the diagnosis of VODI challenging: (1) Current screening strategies to identify severe combined immunodeficiency are based on measuring T cell receptor excision circles (TREC). This approach will fail to identify VODI patients because the disease is not associated with severe T cell lymphopenia at birth; (2) the SP110 gene contains 17 exons, making it a challenge for Sanger sequencing. The recently developed next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms that can rapidly determine the sequence of all 17 exons are available in only a few laboratories; (3) there is no standard functional assay to test for the effects of novel mutations in Sp110; and (4) it has been difficult to use flow cytometry to identify patients who lack Sp110 because of the low level of Sp110 protein in peripheral blood lymphocytes. We report here a novel flow cytometric assay that is easily performed in diagnostic laboratories and might thus become a standard assay for the evaluation of patients who may have VODI. In addition, the assay will facilitate investigations directed at understanding the function of Sp110.

Concepts: Immune system, DNA, Protein, Cell biology, Receptor, B cell, T cell receptor, Flow cytometry


Since the 1990s, the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) PID expert committee (EC), now called Inborn Errors of Immunity Committee, has published every other year a classification of the inborn errors of immunity. This complete catalog serves as a reference for immunologists and researchers worldwide. However, it was unadapted for clinicians at the bedside. For those, the IUIS PID EC is now publishing a phenotypical classification since 2013, which proved to be more user-friendly. There are now 320 single-gene inborn errors of immunity underlying phenotypes as diverse as infection, malignancy, allergy, auto-immunity, and auto-inflammation. We herein propose the revised 2017 phenotypic classification, based on the accompanying 2017 IUIS Inborn Errors of Immunity Committee classification.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Immunology, Allergy, Immunity, Phenotype, Genotype-phenotype distinction


Hyper Immunoglobulin M (HIgM) syndrome is a heterogeneous group of primary immunodeficiency disorders, characterized by recurrent infections and associated with decreased serum IgG and IgA, but normal or increased IgM. The aim of the present study was to evaluate respiratory manifestations in patients with HIgM syndrome.


Immunodeficiency secondary to anti-interferon-gamma (anti-IFN-γ) autoantibodies was first described in 2004 as an acquired defect in the IFN-γ pathway leading to susceptibility to multiple opportunistic infections, including dimorphic fungi, parasites, and bacteria, especially tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) species. It has so far only been described in adult patients. We present 2 cases of disseminated NTM infections in otherwise immunocompetent children. A 16-year-old girl with Sweet’s syndrome-like neutrophilic dermatosis developed recurrent fever and cervical lymphadenitis secondary to Mycobacterium abscessus. A 10-year-old boy with a history of prolonged fever, aseptic meningitis, aortitis, and arteritis in multiple blood vessels developed thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to Mycobacterium avium complex. Both patients were found to have positive serum neutralizing anti-IFNγ autoantibodies. Testing for anti-IFNγ autoantibodies should be considered in otherwise healthy immunocompetent hosts with recurrent or disseminated NTM infection. This represents a phenocopy of primary immunodeficiency which has been recently described only in adults. We report the first two cases of this phenomenon to affect children.