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Journal: Journal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.)


Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) may confound the reported relationship between low blood pressure (BP) and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) in treated hypertensive patients. Incident CVD was assessed in treated hypertensive patients with and without aTRH (BP ≥140 and/or ≥90 mm Hg on ≥3 medications or <140/<90 mm Hg on ≥4 BP medications) at three BP levels: 1: <120 and/or <70 mm Hg and <140/<90 mm Hg; 2: 120-139/70-89 mm Hg; and 3: ≥140 and/or ≥90 mm Hg. Electronic health data were matched to emergency and hospital claims for incident CVD in 118 356 treated hypertensive patients. In adults with and without aTRH, respectively, CVD was greater in level 1 versus level 2 (multivariable hazard ratio, 1.88 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70-2.07]; 1.71 [95% CI, 1.59-1.84]), intermediate in level 1 versus level 3 (hazard ratio, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.21-1.44]; 0.99, [95% CI, 0.92-1.07]), and lowest in level 2 versus level 3 (hazard ratio, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.65-0.76]; 0.58, [95% CI, 0.54-0.62]). Low treated BP was associated with more CVD than less stringent BP control irrespective of aTRH.

Concepts: Blood, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, Blood pressure, Orthostatic hypotension, Prehypertension, Hypotension


Blood pressure (BP) is a strong cardiovascular risk factor, predicting cardiovascular mortality in the general population. High salt consumption is a major contributor of increased BP and hypertension. However, there is a controversy on whether BP response to salt intake would be sex-specific. Thus, we aimed to verify the changes in BP according to different salt intake in men and women in a large sample of adults. The present analysis refers to 12 813 participants (from 35 to 64 years) with a validated 12-hour overnight urine collection in which salt intake was estimated. A set of questionnaires, clinical examination, and laboratory tests were carried out during a single visit to one of the six investigation centers involved. Salt intake was 12.9 ± 5.9 g/d in men and 9.3 ± 4.3 g/d in women. BP increases as salt intake increases, regardless of using BP-lowering medication. The slope of increase in BP elicited by salt intake was significantly higher in women than in men. Thus, the increase in BP by salt intake was stepper in women even after controlling for confounders, regardless of using BP-lowering medication or being hypertensive. In conclusion, salt intake is elevated in this large sample of Brazilian adults in which only a few participants are compliant with the recommendation. Also, women have a higher responsiveness of BP according to salt intake than men, and it is not associated with age, BP level, or the use of BP-lowering medication.


Pediatric practice guidelines call for repeating an elevated office blood pressure (BP) at the same visit, but there are few data available to support this recommendation. We compared the visit results in children aged 3 to 17 years with a BP reading ≥95th percentile (n = 186 732) based on the initial BP and the mean of two BP readings, using electronic medical records from 2012-2015. Failure to repeat an initial BP reading ≥95th percentile would lead to a false “hypertensive” visit result in 54.1% of children who would require follow-up visits. After an initial visit result indicating hypertension, hypertension stage I or stage II was sustained in 2.3% and 11.3% of youth during their next visits, respectively. In conclusion, only approximately half of the pediatric patients would be correctly classified based on their initial BP. The recommendation to repeat high BP during the same visit needs to be emphasized because it saves unnecessary follow-up visits.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Hypertension, Stroke, Blood pressure, Orthostatic hypotension, Prehypertension


This explorative, longitudinal study evaluated the effect of the daily use of a mobile phone-based self-management support system for hypertension in reducing blood pressure (BP) among 50 primary care patients with hypertension over 8 weeks. The self-management system comprises modules for (1) self-reports of BP, pulse, lifestyle, symptoms, and well-being; (2) delivery of reminders and encouragements; and (3) graphical feedback of self-reports. Daily use of the support system significantly reduced BP (systolic BP -7 mm Hg, diastolic BP -4.9 mm Hg) between baseline and week 8, with daily improvements leveling off as the study progressed. Three homogenous subsets of patients were identified who, despite different initial BP levels, showed similar decreases in BP during the study, indicating that patients benefited irrespective of baseline BP. In showing significant reductions in BP, our results suggest that the self-management support system may be a useful tool in clinical practice to help patients self-manage their hypertension.

Concepts: Longitudinal study, Clinical trial, Improve, Hypertension, Blood pressure, Ventricle, Orthostatic hypotension, Mobile phone


Lightheadedness after standing contributes to adverse clinical events, including falls. Recommendations for higher sodium intake to treat postural lightheadedness have not been evaluated in a trial setting. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium trial (1998-1999) tested the effects of the DASH diet and sodium reduction on blood pressure (BP). Participants were randomly assigned to DASH or a typical Western diet (control). During either diet, participants ate three sodium levels (50, 100, 150 meq/d at 2100 kcal) in random order for 30-days, separated by 5-day breaks. Participants reported the presence and severity of postural lightheadedness at baseline and after each feeding period. There were 412 participants (mean age 48 years; 57% women; 57% black). Mean baseline SBP/DBP was 135/86 mm Hg; 9.5% reported baseline lightheadedness. Among those consuming the DASH diet, high vs low sodium increased lightheadedness (OR 1.71; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.90; P = 0.047) and severity of lightheadedness (P = 0.02), but did not affect lightheadedness in those consuming the control diet (OR 0.77; 95% CI: 0.46, 1.29; P = 0.32). Among those consuming high vs low sodium in the context of the DASH diet, adults <60 vs ≥60 years old experienced more lightheadedness (P-interaction = 0.04), along with obese vs non-obese adults (P-interaction = 0.01). In the context of the DASH diet, higher sodium intake was associated with more frequent and severe lightheadedness. These findings challenge traditional recommendations to increase sodium intake to prevent lightheadedness.


High blood pressure is the world’s leading cause of death, but despite treatment for hypertension being safe, effective, and low cost, most people with hypertension worldwide do not have it controlled. This article summarizes lessons learned in the first 2 years of the Resolve to Save Lives (RTSL) hypertension management program, operated in coordination with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners. Better diagnosis, treatment, and continuity of care are all needed to improve control rates, and five necessary components have been recommended by RTSL, WHO and other partners as being essential for a successful hypertension control program. Several hurdles to hypertension control have been identified, with most related to limitations in the health care system rather than to patient behavior. Treatment according to standardized protocols should be started as soon as hypertension is diagnosed, and medical practices and health systems must closely monitor patient progress and system performance. Improvement in hypertension management and control, along with elimination of artificial trans fat and reduction of dietary sodium consumption, will improve many aspects of primary care, contribute to goals for universal health coverage, and could save 100 million lives worldwide over the next 30 years.


Over the past decade, the number of individuals taking calcium supplementation worldwide has been on the rise, especially with the emergence of new pharmaceutical companies specialized in the marketing of dietary supplements; with calcium supplementation being their main business axis. This is mostly because of the established role of calcium in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and, to a lesser extent, its role in the prevention of fractures. Recently, a rising body of evidence on the adverse effect of calcium supplementation on nonskeletal, especially cardiovascular, health has been a cause for concern. In fact, a significant number of studies have reported an association between calcium supplementation and adverse cardiovascular events, even though high dietary calcium intake was shown to have a protective effect. The mechanism by which calcium supplementation could cause a cardiovascular event was still unclear until a recent study published in the Journal of the American Heart Association. Combining this recent finding with available data associating calcium supplementation with cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality, we call on the need for an evidence-based approach to calcium supplementation, while stressing on the safety of dietary calcium intake over the former on cardiovascular health.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Bone, Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease, Calcium, Dietary supplement, The Association, American Heart Association


TY-0201 (TY) is a new drug absorbed by the transdermal delivery system developed for the treatment of hypertension, which contains the free base of bisoprolol fumarate that is widely used. An 8-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in hypertensive patients to evaluate the superiority of TY 8 mg to placebo and the noninferiority of TY 8 mg to bisoprolol fumarate oral formulation (BO) 5 mg. Changes in diastolic blood pressure (BP) (primary endpoint) from baseline in the TY 8 mg group, the BO 5 mg group, and the placebo group were -12.2 mm Hg, -11.8 mm Hg, and -3.7 mm Hg, respectively, with TY 8 mg demonstrating superiority to placebo and noninferiority to BO 5 mg. Changes from baseline for systolic BP and pulse rate produced significant reductions compared with placebo. TY is expected to serve as a new treatment approach for hypertensive patients.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Hypertension, Cardiology, Blood pressure, Pulse, Orthostatic hypotension, Prehypertension, Beta blocker


In light of the worldwide epidemic of obesity, and in recognition of hypertension as a major factor in the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with obesity, The Obesity Society and the American Society of Hypertension agreed to jointly sponsor a position paper on obesity-related hypertension to be published jointly in the journals of each society. The purpose is to inform the members of both societies, as well as practicing clinicians, with a timely review of the association between obesity and high blood pressure, the risk that this association entails, and the options for rational, evidenced-based treatment. The position paper is divided into six sections plus a summary as follows: pathophysiology, epidemiology and cardiovascular risk, the metabolic syndrome, lifestyle management in prevention and treatment, pharmacologic treatment of hypertension in the obese, and the medical and surgical treatment of obesity in obese hypertensive patients.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Stroke, Blood pressure, Metabolic syndrome


Racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of diagnosed hypertension are persistent but may be partially explained by racial/ethnic differences in weight category and neighborhood socioeconomic status. The authors compared hypertension prevalence rates among 4 060 585 adults with overweight or obesity across 10 healthcare systems by weight category and neighborhood education level in geographically and racially diverse individuals. Data were obtained from electronic health records. Hypertension was defined as at least two outpatient visits or one inpatient hospitalization with a coded diagnosis. Logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, and site, with two-way interactions between race/ethnicity and weight category or neighborhood education, was used to examine the association between hypertension and race/ethnicity, with whites as the reference. Results documented that odds ratios for hypertension prevalence were greater for blacks, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Asians, and Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders compared with whites and lower for Hispanics in similar weight categories and neighborhood education levels. Although two-way interactions were statistically significant, the magnitude of the odds of hypertension compared with whites did not substantially vary across weight or neighborhood education. Hypertension odds were almost double relative to whites for blacks and Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders across most weight categories and all neighborhood education levels. Odds of hypertension were about 50% greater for Asians relative to whites across weight categories. Results suggest that other factors might be associated with racial/ethnic disparities in hypertension. More research is needed to understand the many factors that may contribute to variation in diagnosed hypertension across racial/ethnic groups with overweight or obesity.

Concepts: Logit, Obesity, Black people, Sociology, Greek loanwords, Race, Ethnic group, Higher education