SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics

28

Diamond-anvil cell, pressure-tuning infrared (IR), and Raman microspectroscopic measurements have been undertaken to examine the effects of high pressures up to about 45 kbar on the vibrational spectra of the four DNA bases, adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. Small structural changes were evident for all the four bases, viz., for adenine and cytosine at 28-31 kbar; for guanine at 16-19 kbar; and for thymine at 25-26 kbar. These changes are most likely associated with alterations in the intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions. The pressure dependences of the main peaks observed in the IR spectra of the two phases of guanine lie in the -0.07-0.66 (low-pressure phase) and 0.06-0.91 (high-pressure phase) cm(-1)/kbar ranges. Also, in the Raman spectra of this nucleoside base, the dν/dP values range from -0.07-0.31 (low-pressure phase) to 0.08-0.50 (high-pressure phase) cm(-1)/kbar. Similar ranges of dν/dP values were obtained for the other three nucleoside bases.

Concepts: DNA, RNA, Nucleoside, Nucleotide, Adenine, Nucleobase, Guanine, Thymine

27

The molecular recognition and discrimination of very similar ligand moieties by proteins are important subjects in protein-ligand interaction studies. Specificity in the recognition of molecules is determined by the arrangement of protein and ligand atoms in space. The three pyrimidine bases, viz. cytosine, thymine, and uracil, are structurally similar, but the proteins that bind to them are able to discriminate them and form interactions. Since nonbonded interactions are responsible for molecular recognition processes in biological systems, our work attempts to understand some of the underlying principles of such recognition of pyrimidine molecular structures by proteins. The preferences of the amino acid residues to contact the pyrimidine bases in terms of nonbonded interactions; amino acid residue-ligand atom preferences; main chain and side chain atom contributions of amino acid residues; and solvent-accessible surface area of ligand atoms when forming complexes are analyzed. Our analysis shows that the amino acid residues, tyrosine and phenyl alanine, are highly involved in the pyrimidine interactions. Arginine prefers contacts with the cytosine base. The similarities and differences that exist between the interactions of the amino acid residues with each of the three pyrimidine base atoms in our analysis provide insights that can be exploited in designing specific inhibitors competitive to the ligands.

Concepts: DNA, Amino acid, Acid, Ammonia, RNA, Molecule, Pyrimidine, Uracil

26

Prion diseases are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of mammalian species such as sheep and goats, cattle, deer and elk, and humans. But for rabbits, studies have shown that they have a low susceptibility to be infected by prion diseases. This paper does molecular dynamics (MD) studies of rabbit NMR structures (of the wild type and its two mutants of two surface residues), in order to understand the specific mechanism of rabbit prion proteins (RaPrP©). Protein surface electrostatic charge distributions are specially focused to analyze the MD trajectories. This paper can conclude that surface electrostatic charge distributions indeed contribute to the structural stability of wild-type RaPrP©; this may be useful for the medicinal treatment of prion diseases.

Concepts: Protein, Electron, Gene, Infectious disease, Electric charge, Species, Prion, Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy

25

Proteins interact with carbohydrates to perform various cellular interactions. Of the many carbohydrate ligands that proteins bind with, mannose constitute an important class, playing important roles in host defense mechanisms. Accurate identification of mannose-interacting residues (MIR) may provide important clues to decipher the underlying mechanisms of protein-mannose interactions during infections. This study proposes an approach using an ensemble of base-classifiers for prediction of MIR using their evolutionary information in the form of position specific scoring matrix (PSSM). The base-classifiers are random forests trained by different subsets of training dataset Dset128 using ten-fold cross-validation. The optimized ensemble of base-classifiers, MOWGLI, is then used to predict MIR on protein chains of the test dataset Dtestset29 which showed a promising performance with 92.0% accurate prediction. An overall improvement of 26.6% in precision was observed upon comparison with the state-of-art. It is hoped that this approach, yielding enhanced predictions, could be eventually used for applications in drug design and vaccine development.

Concepts: Immune system, Scientific method, Protein, Pharmacology, Metabolism, Nutrition, Prediction, Futurology

25

PfHGXPRT is a key enzyme involved in purine nucleotide salvage pathway of the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on two types of PfHGXPRT dimers (D1 and D3) and its tetramer in their apo and ligand-bound states. A significant event in the catalytic cycle is the dynamics of a gate that provides access for the ligand molecules to the reaction center. The gate is formed by loops II and IV, the former being the most flexible. Large amplitude conformational changes have been observed in active site loop II. Upon complete occupancy of the active site, loop II gets stabilized due to specific interactions between its residues and the ligand molecules. Remote loop, X, is seen to be less fluxional in the D3 dimer than in D1 which is rationalized as due to the greater number of inter-subunit contacts in the former. The presence of ligand molecules in subunits of the tetramer further reduces the flexibility of loop X epitomizing a communication between this region and the active sites in the tetramer. These observations are in accordance with the outcomes of several experimental investigations. Participation of loop X in the oligomerization process has also been discerned. Between the two types of dimers in solution, D1 tetramerizes readily and thus would not be present as free dimers. We conjecture an equilibrium to exist between D3 and the tetramer in solution; upon binding of the ligand molecules to the D3 dimer, this equilibrium shifts towards the tetramer.

Concepts: DNA, Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium, Molecular dynamics, Plasmodium vivax, Anopheles, Monomer

25

We have performed an amino acid composition (AAC) analysis of the complete sequences for 235 secondary transport proteins from Escherichia coli, which have functions in the uptake and export of organic and inorganic metabolites, efflux of drugs and in controlling membrane potential. This revealed the trends in content for specific amino acid types and for combinations of amino acids with similar physicochemical properties. In certain proteins or groups of proteins, the so-called spikes of high content for a specific amino acid type or combination of amino acids were identified and confirmed statistically, which in some cases could be directly related to function and ligand specificity. This was prevalent in proteins with a function of multidrug or metal ion efflux. Any tool that can help in identifying bacterial multidrug efflux proteins is important for a better understanding of this mechanism of antibiotic resistance. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequence alignments and comparison of sequences at the N- and C-terminal ends confirmed transporter Family classification. Locations of specific amino acid types in some of the proteins that have crystal structures (EmrE, LacY, AcrB) were also considered to help link amino acid content with protein function. Though there are limitations, this work has demonstrated that a basic analysis of AAC is a useful tool to use in combination with other computational and experimental methods for classifying and investigating function and ligand specificity in a large group of transport or other membrane proteins, including those that are molecular targets for development of new drugs.

Concepts: Protein, Bacteria, Amino acid, Acid, Amine, Ammonia, Antibiotic resistance, Escherichia coli

25

Carbonic anhydrase VA (CAVA) is primarily expressed in the mitochondria and involved in numerous physiological processes including lipogenesis, insulin secretion from pancreatic cells, ureagenesis, gluconeogenesis and neuronal transmission. To understand the biophysical properties of CAVA, we carried out a reversible urea-induced isothermal denaturation at pH 7.0 and 25 °C. Spectroscopic probes, [θ]222 (mean residue ellipticity at 222 nm), F344 (Trp-fluorescence emission intensity at 344 nm) and Δε280 (difference absorption at 280 nm) were used to monitor the effect of urea on the structure and stability of CAVA. The urea-induced reversible denaturation curves were used to estimate ΔGD(0), Gibbs free energy in the absence of urea; Cm, the midpoint of the denaturation curve, i.e., molar urea concentration ([urea]) at which ΔGD = 0; and m, the slope (=∂ΔGD/∂[urea]). Coincidence of normalized transition curves of all optical properties suggests that unfolding/refolding of CAVA is a two-state process. We further performed 40 ns molecular dynamics simulation of CAVA to see the dynamics at different urea concentrations. An excellent agreement was observed between in silico and in vitro studies.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Optics, Insulin, Molecular dynamics, Pancreas, In vitro, Gibbs free energy, Urea

25

In this study, molecular dynamics simulation is used to investigate the adsorption of an anticancer drug, doxorubicin, on bundles of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in an aqueous solution. Carboxylic group has been selected as the functional group. MD simulations are performed for both separated systems containing a single-wall carbon nanotube bundle and a functionalized carbon nanotube bundle and results are compared with existing experimental data. MD results show that doxorubicin can be adsorbed on CNTs using different methods such as entrapment within CNT bundle, attachment to the side wall of the CNT, and adsorption on the CNT inner cavity. For functionalized CNT, the adsorption of drugs on the functional groups is essential for predicting the enhancement of drug loading on the functionalized nanotubes. Furthermore, the adsorption behavior of doxorubicin on CNTs is fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The results show that Langmuir model can predict the adsorption behavior of doxorubicin on CNTs more accurately than Freundlich model does. As predicted by this isotherm model, the adsorption process of doxorubicin on CNTs is relatively difficult, but it can be improved by increasing the functional groups on the CNTs surface.

Concepts: Alcohol, Molecular dynamics, Functional group, Carbon, Adsorption, Carboxylic acid, Amide, Carbon nanotube

25

An interaction between a pair of proteins unique for a particular tissue is denoted as a tissue-specific interaction (TSI). Tissue-specific (TS) proteins always perform TSIs with a limited number of interacting partners. However, it has been claimed that housekeeping (HK) proteins frequently take part in TSIs. This is actually an unusual phenomenon. How a single HK protein mediates TSIs, - remains an interesting yet an unsolved question. We have hypothesized that HK proteins have attained a high degree of structural flexibility to modulate TSIs efficiently. We have observed that HK proteins are selected to be intrinsically disordered compared to TS proteins. Therefore, the purposeful adaptation of structural disorder brings out special advantages for HK proteins compared to TS proteins. We have demonstrated that TSIs may play vital roles in shaping the molecular adaptation of disordered regions within HK proteins. We also have noticed that HK proteins, mediating a huge number of TSIs, have a greater portion of their interacting interfaces overlapped with the adjacent disordered segment. Moreover, these HK proteins, mediating TSIs, preferably adapt single domain. We have concluded that HK proteins adapt a high degree of structural flexibility to mediate TSIs. Besides, having a single domain along with structural flexibility is more economic than maintaining multiple domains with a rigid structure. This assists them in attaining various structural conformations upon binding to their partners, thereby designing an economically optimum molecular system.

Concepts: Interaction, Observation, Mediation, Dehydron

25

The aim of this study was to clone, express and characterize a β-xylosidase (Tlxyn1) from the thermophilic fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus SSBP in Pichia pastoris GS115 as well as analyse optimal activity and stability using computational and experimental methods. The enzyme was constitutively expressed using the GAP promoter and secreted into the medium due to the alpha mating factor secretion signal present on the expression vector pBGPI. The 1276 bp gene consists of an open reading frame that does not contain introns. A 12% SDS-PAGE gel revealed a major protein band at an estimated molecular mass of 50 kDa which corresponded to zymogram analysis. The three dimensional structure of β-xylosidase was predicted and molecular dynamics simulations at different ranges of temperature and pH were performed in order to predict optimal activity and folding energy. The results suggested a strong conformational temperature and pH dependence. The recombinant enzyme exhibited optimal activity at pH 7 and 50°C and retained 80% activity at 50°C, pH 7 for about 45 min. This is the first report of the cloning, functional expression and simulations study of a β-xylosidase from Thermomyces species in a fungal host.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Gene, Cell, Transcription, Molecular biology, Enzyme, PH