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Journal: Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A

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Understanding and improving in vivo materials related to signal stability and preservation for active chemical sensor and biosensor transduction systems is critical in achieving implantable medical sensors for long-term in vivo applications. During human in vivo clinical testing of an implantable glucose sensor based on a glucose sensitive hydrogel, post-explant analysis showed that the boronate recognition element had been oxidized from the fluorescent indicator, causing a rapid loss of signal within hours after implant. Additional wet-bench analytical evidence and reproduction in vitro suggests reactive oxygen species, particularly hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), stemming from natural inflammatory response to the material, to be the cause of the observed oxidative de-boronation. A 3-nm thick deposition of metallic platinum (Pt) placed by plasma sputtering onto the porous surface of the hydrogel, showed immediate protection from sensor signal loss due to oxidation both in vitro and in vivo, greatly extending the useful lifetime of the implantable glucose sensor from 1 day to an expected ≥6 months. This finding may represent a new strategy to protect an implanted material and/or device from in vivo oxidative damage, leading to much improved overall stability and reliability for long-term applications. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.

Concepts: Oxidizing agent, Reactive oxygen species, Redox, Oxidative phosphorylation, Oxidative stress, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Hydrogen peroxide

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Burns are a significant health challenge and healing can result in scar formation. Chitosan, a derivative of chitin, has been used to promote wound healing. In this study we used gene expression profiling in a mouse model of full thickness cutaneous burn to assess the benefits of treating with a chitosan lactate dressing. Three days after wounding mice treated with chitosan showed increased expression of genes associated with formation of granulation tissue. At a later time point, seven days after wounding, genes that initially showed increased expression were now down-regulated, and there was increased expression of genes involved in remodeling suggesting that the chitosan treatment results in accelerated healing. Quantitative RT-PCR showed modulated mRNA levels for TGFβ1 by the chitosan dressing. TGFβ1 initially promotes healing but extended activity can result in scarring. Importantly we found that expression was elevated at day three, but decreased at day seven suggesting that chitosan treatment will not result in scar formation, and may even be beneficial in preventing scar formation. Additionally, the biphasic regulation of expression of TGFβ1 could be a powerful biomarker for future studies of the wound-healing potential of chitosan based and other treatments for burn wounds. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.

Concepts: Transcription, Cellular differentiation, DNA, Burn, Scar, Gene, Gene expression, Wound healing

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The evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of almost fully amorphous Mg(72) Zn(23) Ca(5) and crystalline Mg(70) Zn(23) Ca(5) Pd(2) alloys during immersion in Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS), as well as their cytocompatibility, are investigated in order to assess the feasibility of both materials as biodegradable implants. Though the crystalline Mg(70) Zn(23) Ca(5) Pd(2) sample shows lower wettability and more positive corrosion potential, this sample degrades much faster upon incubation in HBSS as a consequence of the formation of micro-galvanic couples between the nobler Pd-rich dendrites and the surrounding phases. After 22-h immersion, the concentration of Mg ions in the HBSS medium containing the Mg(70) Zn(23) Ca(5) Pd(2) sample is six times larger than for Mg(72) Zn(23) Ca(5) . Due to the Zn enrichment and the incipient porosity, the mechanical properties of the Mg(72) Zn(23) Ca(5) sample improve within the first stages of biodegradation (i.e., hardness increases while the Young’s modulus decreases, thus rendering an enhanced wear resistance). Cytocompatibility studies reveal that neither Mg(72) Zn(23) Ca(5) nor Mg(70) Zn(23) Ca(5) Pd(2) are cytotoxic, although preosteoblast cell adhesion is to some extent precluded, particularly onto the surface of Mg(70) Zn(23) Ca(5) Pd(2) , because of the relatively high hydrophobicity. Because of their outstanding properties and their time-evolution, the use of the Pd-free alloy in temporary implants such as screws, stents, and sutures is envisioned. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.

Concepts: Bioremediation, Zinc, Microbial biodegradation, Biodegradability prediction, Young's modulus, Biodegradation, Solid, Materials science

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Magnetite (Fe(3) O(4) ) nanoparticles with the surface hydroxyl groups were achieved by a polyol process. Using 2-(4-chlorosulfonylphenyl) ethyltrichlorosilane (CTCS) as initiator, 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) as monomer, poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC)-grafted Fe(3) O(4) nanoparticles (MNP) were successfully prepared via the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. The successful grafting of PMPC on the Fe(3) O(4) nanoparticles surface was ascertained from the FTIR analysis. The modified nanoparticles (MNP-CTCS-PMPC) showed a good biocompatibility in the cytotoxicity test in vitro. Performance testing of MNP-CTCS-PMPC was performed through magnetic resonance analysis (MR), and its r(2) /r(1) value was 24.1. These results indicated that the modified Fe(3) O(4) nanoparticles would be a potential MRI contrast reagent. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.

Concepts: Radical polymerization, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Living polymerization, Polymer chemistry, Polymerization, Radical, Magnetic resonance imaging, Atom

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We report the synthesis and characterization of two nontoxic, thermogelling drug delivery systems which are liquid at room temperatures but become a gel at physiological temperature (37°C) potentially leading to release of a drug molecule. We selected temperature as the stimulus for drug release as it is physiologically invariant. A free radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and N-vinylpyrrolidone (VP) was carried out under nitrogen atmosphere in double-distilled water at two different temperatures (30°C and 70°C), and the copolymers obtained were characterized by various analytical techniques. The molar ratios of the two monomers were altered with increasing NIPAM content and their cloud point temperature or least critical solution temperature (LCST) was determined. The copolymer at 9:1 ratio of NIPAM to VP resulted in the formation of nanoparticle-based gel (NG1) at 30°C; however, at 70°C, a microgel (MG1) was formed. The LCST of the nanogel and microgel was 33.5-34°C and 36.5-37°C, respectively. Thus, both the copolymers are water soluble at room temperature, but distinct phases appear at physiological temperatures. We hypothesized that these copolymers on entrapment with a drug could be used for topical application to the skin or eye for controlled drug delivery applications. Toxicological studies revealed that the copolymers are nontoxic in HeLa cells. Finally, our experiments show that a model drug [bovine serum albumin (BSA)] is released at 37°C with zero-order kinetics and confirmed using multiple well-known mathematical models. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2012.

Concepts: Temperature, Radical polymerization, Solubility, Polymerization, Serum albumin, Radical, Polymer, Polymer chemistry

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Although biodegradable polymers have found extensive applications in medical areas, there are limited reports that show elastomeric behavior. In this work, a biodegradable, elastomeric polymer is demonstrated from a four-armed star copolymer. With a fixed middle core composition, comprising caprolactone (CL) and L-lactide (LA), an elastomer is obtained by increasing the polylactide (PLA) end block lengths to obtain sufficient end block crystallinity. This increase suppressed the middle core’s crystallinity yet ensured cocrystallization of the PLA ends of individual star copolymer chains to form a three-dimensional network via physical crosslinking. Cyclic and creep test of the star copolymers showed that at least 75% of recovery was achieved. Degradation study of the copolymer showed that degradation first occurred in the caprolactone-co-lactide (CLLA) core, followed by degradation in the PLA ends. Chain scission in the middle core resulted in immediate formation of CL crystals within the core and increased crystallinity over time, in both CLLA core and PLA ends. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 100A:3436-3445, 2012.

Concepts: Cross-link, Materials science, Copolymer, Thermoplastic, Polybutadiene, Polymer chemistry, Elastomer, Polymer

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Stimulation and recording of the in vivo electrical activity of neurons are critical functions in contemporary biomedical research and in treatment of patients with neurological disorders. The electrodes presently in use tend to exhibit short effective lifespans due to degradation of signal transmission resulting from the tissue response at the electrode-brain interface, with signal throughput suffering most at the low frequencies relevant for biosignals. To overcome these limitations, new electrode designs to minimize tissue responses, including conducting polymers (CPs) have been explored. Here, we report the short-term histocompatibility and signal throughput results comparing platinum and CP-modified platinum electrodes in a Sprague-Dawley rat model. Two of the polymers tested elicited significantly decreased astrocyte responses relative to platinum. These polymers also showed improved signal throughput at low frequencies and comparable signal-to-noise ratios during targeted intracranial electroencephalograms. These results suggest that CP electrodes may present viable alternatives to the metal electrodes that are currently in use. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 100A:3455-3462, 2012.

Concepts: In vivo, Medical research, Present, Animal testing, Cathode, Platinum, Electrode, Electricity

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Bioactive glasses are biocompatible materials that convert to hydroxyapatite in vivo, and potentially support bone formation, but have mainly been available in particulate and not scaffold form. In this study, borosilicate and borate bioactive glass scaffolds were evaluated in critical-sized rat calvarial defects. Twelve-week-old rats were implanted with 45S5 silicate glass particles and scaffolds of 1393 silicate, 1393B1 borosilicate, and 1393B3 borate glass. After 12 weeks, the defects were harvested, stained with hematoxylin and eosin to evaluate bone regeneration, Periodic Acid Schiff to quantitate blood vessel area, and von Kossa and backscatter SEM to estimate newly mineralized bone and hydroxyapatite conversion of bioactive glasses. The amount of new bone was 12.4% for 45S5, 8.5% for 1393, 9.7% for 1393B1, and 14.9% for 1393B3 (*p = 0.04; cf. 1393 and 1393B1). Blood vessel area was significantly higher (p = 0.009) with 45S5 (3.8%), with no differences among 1393 (2.0%), 1393B1 (2.4%), or 1393B3 (2.2%). Percent von Kossa-positive area was 18.7% for 45S5, 25.4% for 1393, 29.5% for 1393B1, and 30.1% for 1393B3, significantly higher (p = 0.014) in 1393B1 and 1393B3 glasses than in 45S5. 45S5 and 1393B3 converted completely to HA in vivo. The 1393B3 glass provided greater bone formation and may be more promising for bone defect repair due to its capacity to be molded into scaffolds. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 100A:3267-3275, 2012.

Concepts: In vivo, Rat, Scaffolding, Heart, Glass compositions, Blood vessel, Glass, Bioactive glass

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The aim of this study is to investigate the morphological and chemical changes of demineralized dentin collagen-matrix and resin/dentin interface associated with chitosan/riboflavin modification. Dentin disc specimens were prepared from sound molars, acid-etched with 35% phosphoric acid and modified with either 0.1% riboflavin or chitosan/riboflavin (Ch/RF ratios 1:4 or 1:1) and photo-activated by UVA. Morphological and chemical changes associated with surface modification were characterized by SEM and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Dentin surfaces of sound molars were exposed, acid-etched, and modified as described before. Etch-and-rinse dentin adhesive was applied, light-cured, and layered with resin-restorative composite. The resin infiltration and resin/dentin interface were characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy and SEM. An open-intact collagen network-structure, formation of uniform hybrid-layer and higher resin infiltration were found with 0.1%RF and Ch/RF 1:4 modifications. Raman analysis revealed chemical changes and shifts in Amide bands with the modification of dentin collagen-matrix. The use of riboflavin and chitosan/riboflavin formulations to modify dentin-collagen matrix, with the defined ratios, stabilizes the collagen fibrillar network and enhances resin infiltration and hybrid layer formation. These preliminary results are encouraging for subsequent consideration of chitosan/riboflavin modification in adhesive dentistry. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2012.

Concepts: Chemical imaging, Infrared spectroscopy, Chemistry, Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, Mod, Modification, Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy

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An array of design strategies have been targeted toward minimizing failure of implanted microelectrodes by minimizing the chronic glial scar around the microelectrode under chronic conditions. Current approaches toward inhibiting the initiation of glial scarring range from altering the geometry, roughness, size, shape, and materials of the device. Studies have shown materials which mimic the nanotopography of the natural environment in vivo will consequently result in an improved biocompatible response. Nanofabrication of electrode arrays is being pursued in the field of neuronal electrophysiology to increase sampling capabilities. Literature shows a gap in research of nanotopography influence in the reduction of astrogliosis. The aim of this study was to determine optimal feature sizes for neural electrode fabrication, which was defined as eliciting a nonreactive astrocytic response. Nanopatterned surfaces were fabricated with nanoimprint lithography on poly(methyl methacrylate) surfaces. The rate of protein adsorption, quantity of protein adsorption, cell alignment, morphology, adhesion, proliferation, viability, and gene expression was compared between nanopatterned surfaces of different dimensions and non-nanopatterned control surfaces. Results of this study revealed that 3600 nanopatterned surfaces elicited less of a response when compared with the other patterned and non-nanopatterned surfaces. The surface instigated cell alignment along the nanopattern, less protein adsorption, less cell adhesion, proliferation and viability, inhibition of glial fibrillary acidic protein, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 compared with all other substrates tested. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2012.

Concepts: Enzyme, Electrode, Electrochemistry, Gene, Signal transduction, Glial fibrillary acidic protein, Nervous system, Glial scar