SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Journal of audiology & otology

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Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in children is associated with neurocognitive morbidity. The cause of SNHL is a loss of hair cells in the organ of Corti. There are currently no reparative treatments for SNHL. Numerous studies suggest that cord blood mononuclear cells (human umbilical cord blood, hUCB) allow at least partial restoration of SNHL by enabling repair of a damaged organ of Corti. Our objective is to determine if hUCB is a safe treatment for moderate to severe acquired SNHL in children.

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Bilateral sequential vestibular neuritis (BSVN) is a rare condition in which an inflammation or an ischemic damage of the vestibular nerve occurs bilaterally in a sequential pattern. We described four cases of BSVN.

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Spontaneous canalith jam is an uncommon form of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo mimicking acute vestibular neuritis. We described for the first time a spontaneous horizontal semicircular canalith jam associated with a typical canalolithiasis involving contralateral posterior semicircular canal (PSC), illustrating how the latter condition modified direction-fixed nystagmus during head movements. An 81-year-old woman with persistent vertigo referred to our center. Video-Frenzel examination showed horizontal direction-fixed right-beating nystagmus in primary gaze position, inhibited by visual fixation. She exhibited corrective saccades after leftward head impulses. Chin-to-chest positioning at the head-pitch test did not modify spontaneous nystagmus, whereas slight torsional components with the top pole of the eye beating toward the right ear appeared in backward head-bending, resulting in mixed horizontal-torsional nystagmus. At supine positioning tests, direction-fixed nystagmus turned into direction-changing geotropic horizontal nystagmus, which was stronger on the left side, while overlapping upbeat nystagmus with torsional right-beating components appeared on the right. Primary clinical findings were consistent with a left horizontal semicircular canalith jam, inducing a persistent utriculofugal cupular displacement, combined with a typical right-sided PSC-canalolithiasis. Once canalith jam crumbled, resulting in a non-ampullary arm canalolithiasis of the horizontal semicircular canal, both involved canals were freed by debris with appropriate repositioning procedures.

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Temporal bone trauma can cause hearing loss and in case of prolonged conductive hearing loss, traumatic ossicular injury should be considered. Separation of the incudostapedial joint is the most common lesion, and stapediovestibular dislocation is relatively rare but can easily cause perilymphatic fistula. Here, we report a very rare case of external stapediovestibular dislocation after trauma, ending up with successful surgical outcome. A 27-year-old man with non-progressive hearing loss on the right side since childhood visited the clinic. Audiogram showed a conductive hearing loss with air-bone gap of 55 dB on the right side. Temporal bone CT revealed the disruption of ossicular chain. An exploratory tympanotomy identified multiple ossicular disruptions including external stapediovestibular dislocation with shiny fibrous membrane sealing the oval window. Ossicular chain reconstruction was performed using the total ossicular replacement prosthesis of titanium. A postoperative audiogram showed a recovery of air-bone gap less than 10 dB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of external long-standing stapediovestibular dislocation, with oval window completely sealed with fibrous membrane, ending up with successful hearing recovery by surgery. This case would help dealing with such condition which can be encountered in the clinic.

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The aim of the study was to compare effects of tone-burst (TB) and narrow-band (NB) Claus Elberling (CE)-chirp stimuli on amplitude, latency and interaural asymmetry ratio (IAR) of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) in healthy individuals.

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Non-linear frequency compression (NLFC) technology compresses and shifts higher frequencies into a lower frequency area that has better residual hearing. Because consonants are uttered in the high-frequency area, NLFC could provide better speech understanding. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness of NLFC technology on the perception of speech and music in patients with high-frequency hearing loss.

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In masking level difference (MLD), the masked detection threshold for a signal is determined as a function of the relative interaural differences between the signal and the masker. Study 1 analyzed the results of school-aged children with good school performance in the MLD test, and study 2 compared their results with those of a group of children with poor academic performance.

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Conflicting mechanisms have been reported about spontaneous reversal of positional nystagmus during head-roll maneuver in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). The objective of this study is to review the reports about the characteristics and possible mechanisms of reversing positional nystagmus and to present seven new cases.

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Cortical deafness is a clinical rarity whereby a patient is unresponsive to all types of sounds despite the preserved integrity of the peripheral hearing organs. In this study, we present a patient who suddenly lost his hearing following ischaemic infarcts in both temporal lobes with no other neurological deficits. The CT confirmed damage to the primary auditory cortex (Heschl’s gyrus) of both hemispheres. Initially, the patient was unresponsive to all sounds, however, he regained some of the auditory abilities during 10 months follow up. Pure tone threshold improvement from complete deafness to the level of moderate hearing loss in the right ear and severe in the left was observed in pure tone audiometry. Otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem responses, and acoustic reflex findings showed normal results. The middle and late latency potential results confirmed objectively the improvement of the patient’s hearing, however, after 10 months still, they were somewhat compromised on both sides. In speech audiometry, there was no comprehension of spoken words neither at 3 nor at 10 months. The absent mismatch negativity confirmed above mentioned comprehension deficit. The extensive auditory electrophysiological testing presented in this study contributes to the understanding of the neural and functional changes in cortical deafness. It presents the evolution of changes after ischaemic cerebrovascular event expressed as auditory evoked potentials starting from short through middle and long latency and ending with event-related potentials and supported by neuroimaging.

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The speech-in-noise test is typically performed using an audiometer. The results of the digit-in-noise recognition (DIN) test may be influenced by the flat frequency response of free-field audiometry and frequency of the hearing aid fit based on fitting rationale. This study aims to investigate the DIN test in unaided and aided conditions. Subjects and.