Journal: Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis
To investigate the relationship between serum uric acid levels and cardiovascular disease in Asians.
Both vascular function and structure are independent predictors of cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate vascular function and structure of a leg artery in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD).
Elevated level of serum triglyceride (TG) is a characteristic of type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the clinical significance of intervention for the serum TG levels in the fasting and postprandial states in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP)-5b and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are specific and sensitive markers of bone resorption in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The TRACP-5b level is associated with the severity of RA and CKD, while the OPG level is associated with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, and can predict a poor outcome in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the impact of TRACP-5b on coronary atherosclerosis in CAD patients remains unclear.
Intestinal flora (microbiota) have recently attracted attention among lipid and carbohydrate metabolism researchers. Microbiota metabolize resistant starches and dietary fibers through fermentation and decomposition, and provide short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to the host. The major SCFAs acetates, propionate and butyrate, have different production ratios and physiological activities. Several receptors for SCFAs have been identified as the G-protein coupled receptor 41/free fatty acid receptor 3 (GPR41/FFAR3), GPR43/FFAR2, GPR109A, and olfactory receptor 78, which are present in intestinal epithelial cells, immune cells, and adipocytes, despite their expression levels differing between tissues and cell types. Many studies have indicated that SCFAs exhibit a wide range of functions from immune regulation to metabolism in a variety of tissues and organs, and therefore have both a direct and indirect influence on our bodies. This review will focus on SCFAs, especially butyrate, and their effects on various inflammatory mechanisms including atherosclerosis. In the future, SCFAs may provide new insights into understanding the pathophysiology of chronic inflammation, metabolic disorders, and atherosclerosis, and we can expect the development of novel therapeutic strategies for these diseases.
This paper describes consensus statement by Joint Working Group by Japan Pediatric Society and Japan Atherosclerosis Society for Making Guidance of Pediatric Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) in order to improve prognosis of FH.FH is a common genetic disease caused by mutations in genes related to low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor pathway. Because patients with FH have high LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels from the birth, atherosclerosis begins and develops during childhood which determines the prognosis. Therefore, in order to reduce their lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease, patients with FH need to be diagnosed as early as possible and appropriate treatment should be started.Diagnosis of pediatric heterozygous FH patients is made by LDL-C ≥140 mg/dL, and family history of FH or premature CAD. When the diagnosis is made, they need to improve their lifestyle including diet and exercise which sometimes are not enough to reduce LDL-C levels. For pediatric FH aged ≥10 years, pharmacotherapy needs to be considered if the LDL-C level is persistently above 180 mg/dL. Statins are the first line drugs starting from the lowest dose and are increased if necessary. The target LDL-C level should ideally be ＜140 mg/dL. Assessment of atherosclerosis is mainly performed by noninvasive methods such as ultrasound.For homozygous FH patients, the diagnosis is made by existence of skin xanthomas or tendon xanthomas from infancy, and untreated LDL-C levels are approximately twice those of heterozygous FH parents. The responsiveness to pharmacotherapy should be ascertained promptly and if the effect of treatment is not enough, LDL apheresis needs to be immediately initiated.
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Interventions targeting the inflammatory process could provide new strategies for preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Previously, we have reported that oral administration of anti-CD3 antibodies, or active vitamin D3, reduced atherosclerosis in mice via recruiting regulatory T cells and tolerogenic dendritic cells to the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. From this, it is reasonable to propose that the intestine could be a novel therapeutic target for prevention of atherosclerotic CVD. Recently, the association between cardio-metabolic diseases and gut microbiota has attracted increased attention. Gut microbiota, reported to be highly associated with intestinal immunity and metabolism, were shown to aggravate CVD by contributing to the production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a pro-atherogenic compound. We have also previously investigated the relationship between patient susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD) and gut microbiota. We found that the order Lactobacillales was significantly increased and the phylum Bacteroidetes was decreased in CAD patients compared with control patients. In this review article, we discuss the evidence for the relationship between the gut microbiota and cardio-metabolic diseases, and consider the gut microbiota as new potential diagnostic and therapeutic tool for treating CVD.
Recent studies have suggested that metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with gut microbiota. The association between atherosclerosis and gut microbiota has also been attracting increased attention. Our aim was to specify a characteristic trend of gut microbiota in coronary artery disease (CAD).
Several international guidelines and consensus statements have recently been published on the care of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)(1-3)). They agree on approaches to case detection and cascade testing, protocols in children, lifestyle and drug treatment strategies, and indications for lipoprotein apheresis. However, most countries in the world still do not have integrated, systematic FH screening programs to adequately detect and treat cases in the community. This study provides a comprehensive overview of recent and future international initiatives for closing the gaps in the care of FH.
In animals, dietary energy restriction is reported to increase longevity, whereas in humans, all cohort studies from Western countries have not shown an association between the low energy intake and longevity. We examined the association between total energy intake and longevity in Japan where dietary pattern is different from that in the West.