Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: JAMA otolaryngology-- head & neck surgery


Tinnitus is a common problem for millions of individuals and can cause substantial negative effects on their quality of life. A large epidemiologic study of tinnitus and its management patterns in the US adult population is lacking.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Disease, Biology, Demography, United States, Incidence, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state


Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a common disorder with protean manifestations in the head and neck. In this retrospective study, we report the efficacy of a wholly dietary approach using alkaline water, a plant-based, Mediterranean-style diet, and standard reflux precautions compared with that of the traditional treatment approach of proton pump inhibition (PPI) and standard reflux precautions.

Concepts: Protein, Head and neck anatomy, Head and neck, Human, Water, Chemistry, Atom, Diet


There is a critical disparity in knowledge regarding the rate and nature of hearing loss in the older old (80 years and older).

Concepts: Hearing impairment, Audiogram, Old Testament


Chronic tinnitus negatively affects the quality of life for millions of people. This clinical trial assesses a potential treatment for tinnitus.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, Tinnitus


There have been concerns about increasing levels of hearing impairment in children and adolescents, especially in relation to noise exposure, because even mild levels of hearing loss can affect educational outcomes.

Concepts: Cochlea, Hearing impairment, Tinnitus, Audiogram, Hearing, Noise pollution, Hearing loss, Loud music


Epidemiologic research on the possible link between age-related hearing loss (ARHL) and cognitive decline and dementia has produced inconsistent results. Clarifying this association is of interest because ARHL may be a risk factor for outcomes of clinical dementia.

Concepts: Psychology, Epidemiology, Brain, Medical statistics, Cognition, Educational psychology, Meta-analysis, Association of Ideas


Positive margins are associated with poor prognosis among patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, wide variation exists in the margin sampling technique.

Concepts: Cancer, Sampling, Lung cancer, Anatomical pathology, Carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium, Tongue


Active surveillance of low-risk papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is now an accepted alternative to immediate surgery, but experience with this approach outside of Japan is limited. The kinetics (probability, rate, and magnitude) of PTC tumor growth under active surveillance have not been well defined.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Chemotherapy, Brain tumor, Benign tumor, Tumor, Neoplasm, Nature


IMPORTANCE We have previously reported on a doubling of thyroid cancer incidence-largely due to the detection of small papillary cancers. Because they are commonly found in people who have died of other causes, and because thyroid cancer mortality had been stable, we argued that the increased incidence represented overdiagnosis. OBJECTIVE To determine whether thyroid cancer incidence has stabilized. DESIGN Analysis of secular trends in patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer, 1975 to 2009, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program and thyroid cancer mortality from the National Vital Statistics System. SETTING Nine SEER areas (SEER 9): Atlanta, Georgia; Connecticut; Detroit, Michigan; Hawaii; Iowa; New Mexico; San Francisco-Oakland, California; Seattle-Puget Sound, Washington; and Utah. PARTICIPANTS Men and women older than 18 years diagnosed as having a thyroid cancer between 1975 and 2009 who lived in the SEER 9 areas. INTERVENTIONS None. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Thyroid cancer incidence, histologic type, tumor size, and patient mortality. RESULTS Since 1975, the incidence of thyroid cancer has now nearly tripled, from 4.9 to 14.3 per 100 000 individuals (absolute increase, 9.4 per 100 000; relative rate [RR], 2.9; 95% CI, 2.7-3.1). Virtually the entire increase was attributable to papillary thyroid cancer: from 3.4 to 12.5 per 100 000 (absolute increase, 9.1 per 100 000; RR, 3.7; 95% CI, 3.4-4.0). The absolute increase in thyroid cancer in women (from 6.5 to 21.4 = 14.9 per 100 000 women) was almost 4 times greater than that of men (from 3.1 to 6.9 = 3.8 per 100 000 men). The mortality rate from thyroid cancer was stable between 1975 and 2009 (approximately 0.5 deaths per 100 000). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE There is an ongoing epidemic of thyroid cancer in the United States. The epidemiology of the increased incidence, however, suggests that it is not an epidemic of disease but rather an epidemic of diagnosis. The problem is particularly acute for women, who have lower autopsy prevalence of thyroid cancer than men but higher cancer detection rates by a 3:1 ratio.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Infectious disease, Oncology, Death, Medical statistics, United States, Histology


IMPORTANCE Depression among hearing impaired US adults has not been studied previously. OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for depression among adults with hearing loss. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Adults aged 18 years or older (N = 18 318) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2005-2010, a nationally representative sample. INTERVENTIONS Multistage probability sampling of US population. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Depression, assessed by the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scale, and hearing impairment (HI), assessed by self-report and audiometric examination for adults aged 70 years or older. RESULTS The prevalence of moderate to severe depression (PHQ-9 score, ≥10) was 4.9% for individuals reporting excellent hearing, 7.1% for those with good hearing, and 11.4% for participants who reported a little trouble or greater HI. Using excellent hearing as the reference, after adjusting for all covariates, multivariate odds ratios (ORs) for depression were 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.8) for good hearing, 1.7 (1.3-2.2) for a little trouble, 2.4 (1.7-3.2) for moderate trouble, 1.5 (0.9-2.6) for a lot of trouble, and 0.6 (0.1-2.6) for deaf. Moderate HI (defined by better ear pure-tone average of hearing thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz within the range 35- to 49-dB hearing level) was significantly associated with depression among older women (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.3-11.3), after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, lifestyle characteristics, and selected health conditions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE After accounting for health conditions and other factors, including trouble seeing, self-reported HI and audiometrically determined HI were significantly associated with depression, particularly in women. Health care professionals should be aware of an increased risk for depression among adults with hearing loss.

Concepts: Health care, Epidemiology, Cochlea, Hearing impairment, Tinnitus, Audiogram, Hearing, Deaf culture