SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Iranian biomedical journal

140

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an important problem due to Candida spp. The aim of this study was molecular identification, phylogenetic analysis, and evaluation of antifungal susceptibility of non-albicans Candida isolates from VVC.

Concepts: Biology, Candida, Computational phylogenetics, Candidiasis

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For a long time, scientists have tried to describe disorders just by genetic or environmental factors. However, the role of epigenetics in human diseases has been considered from a half of century ago. In the last decade, this subject has attracted many interests, especially in complicated disorders such as behavior plasticity, memory, cancer, autoimmune disease, and addiction as well as neurodegenerative and psychological disorders. This review first explains the history and classification of epigenetic modifications, and then the role of epigenetic in biology and connection between the epigenetics and environment are explained. Furthermore, the role of epigenetics in human diseases is considered by focusing on some diseases with some complicated features, and at the end, we have given the future perspective of this field. The present review article provides concepts with some examples to reveal a broad view of different aspects of epigenetics in biology and human diseases.

Concepts: Infectious disease, Natural environment, Future, Time, Cancer, Epidemiology, Disease, Psychology

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The prominent hallmark of malignancies is the metastatic spread of cancer cells. Recent studies have reported that the nature of invasive cells could be changed after this phenomenon, causing chemotherapy resistance. It has been demonstrated that the up-regulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2/MMP-9, as a metastasis biomarker, can fortify the metastatic potential of leukemia. Furthermore, investigations have confirmed the inhibitory effect of cannabinoid and endocannabinoid on the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

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Differential expression profile of microRNAs (miRNAs) could be a diagnosis signature for the monitoring of gastric cancer (GC) progression. In this study, we focus on the comparison of expression levels of miR-21, miR-25, miR-93, miR-106b, and miR-375 during the sequential pattern of GC development, including normal gastric, gastric dysplasia, and GC sample.

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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the challenging types of cancers; thus, exploring effective biomarkers related to colorectal could lead to significant progresses toward the treatment of this disease.

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The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is influenced by both genetic factors and epigenetic modifications; the latter is a result of exposure to various environmental factors. Epigenetic modifications affect gene expression and alter cellular functions without modifying the genomic sequences. CpG-DNA methylation, histone modifications, and miRNAs are the main epigenetic factors of gene regulation. In SLE, global and gene-specific DNA methylation changes have been demonstrated to occur in CD4+ T-cells. Moreover, histone acetylation and deacetylation inhibitors reverse the expression of multiple genes involved in SLE, indicating histone modification in SLE. Autoreactive T-cells and B-cells have been shown to alter the patterns of epigenetic changes in SLE patients. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of SLE is critical for the introduction of effective, target-directed and tolerated therapies. In this review, we summarize the recent findings that highlight the importance of epigenetic modifications and their mechanisms in SLE.

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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is related to the gut microbiota with numerous molecular mechanisms. Modulating the gut microbiota by probiotics could be effective in management of T2DM. The aim of the present trial was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus casei on glycemic control and serum sirtuin1 (SIRT1) and fetuin-A in patients with T2DM.

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The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is an infectious viral agent that gradually extinguishes the immune system, resulting in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The aim of this study was to construct an RNA-positive control based on armored (AR) RNA technology, using HIV-1 RNA as a model.

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ZFX is a transcriptional regulator in embryonic stem cells that plays an important role in pluripotency and self-renewal. ZFX is widely expressed in pluripotent stem cells and is down-regulated during differentiation of embryonic stem cells. ZFX has five different variants that encode three different protein isoforms. While several reports have determined the overexpression of ZFX in a variety of somatic cancers, the expression of ZFX-spliced variants in cancer cells is not well-understood.

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Aberrant activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway is a critical event during gastric cancer progression. Selective function of AKT inhibitor AZD5363 in PI3KCA mutant gastric cancer necessitates the assessment of PI3KCA mutations in these patients.