SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Interventional neuroradiology : journal of peritherapeutic neuroradiology, surgical procedures and related neurosciences

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Flow diverters (FDs) are increasingly used for complex intracranial aneurysms. As these self-expanding devices are deployed across an aneurysm neck, they can undergo deformations. The potential clinical consequences of FD deformations remain unclear. We describe an immediate thrombotic complication attributed to a stereotypical stenotic deformation of an FD extremity that can occur when landing zones are of insufficient length. This case is supplemented with in vitro studies showing the relationship between i) the length of the landing zones and ii) discrepancies between the diameter of the device and recipient vessel, and the severity of FD stenosis. In vitro, a shorter landing zone was associated with a progressive stenotic deformation of the terminal ends of all FDs studied. This deformation was more pronounced when the diameter of the device was oversized compared to the size of the recipient tube. In our clinical case, the presence of this deformation led to an immediate thrombotic complication, requiring deployment of a second stent to correct the observed stenosis. In addition, treatment failure ultimately led to a fatal rupture, a failure that can be explained by residual flows through a more porous transition zone, another characteristic FD deformation which occurs when they are oversized as compared to the parent vessel, but free to expand at the level of the aneurysm. Proper selection of device diameter and length of the landing zone is important, and may decrease the incidence of deformation-related complications.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Smoking, Stent, In vitro, Aneurysm, Restenosis, Diversion, Zone

25

Recent data have demonstrated that mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is beneficial for patients presenting within zero to six hours of symptom onset after stroke. However, transferring all patients with possible strokes for endovascular therapy and MT would be inefficient and costly. We conducted a case-control study to identify a subset of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) to identify patients with large-vessel occlusion (LVO) to a high degree of specificity, in order to select those patients for whom transfer is most appropriate.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Medical terms, Stroke, Case-control study, Economic efficiency

2

The extracranial vertebral artery (VA) is vulnerable to dissection and the V3 segment is the most common location for dissection. Dissection accounts for about 2% of all ischemic strokes and can occur after trauma or chiropractic neck maneuvers. We report an extremely rare case of spontaneous extracranial VA dissection presenting with posterior neck hematoma aggravated after cupping therapy, a treatment in traditional Oriental medicine. We treated the patient successfully by endovascular treatment without any complication.

Concepts: Stroke, Acupuncture, Alternative medicine, Vertebral artery dissection, Traditional Chinese medicine, Vertebral artery, Gua Sha, Fire cupping

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Intracranial pseudoaneurysms are uncommon and among the most difficult lesions to treat with surgery or endovascular means without parent artery sacrifice. Here, we report on a patient who underwent successful treatment using a flow-diverting stent for an iatrogenic intracranial internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm following a vessel injury after endoscopic pituitary tumor resection via the transsphenoidal approach. A 62-year-old man with a Rathke’s cleft cyst presenting with bitemporal hemianopia and progressive decline of left visual acuity underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary tumor resection. During dura incision, brisk arterial bleeding was encountered from the right internal carotid artery. Immediate packing was performed, and hemostasis was achieved. Three days after the vessel injury, an angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm (2.9 × 2.1 mm) at the cavernous segment of the right internal carotid artery, which showed enlargement on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging at six days postoperatively. Pipeline embolization was performed nine days after the vessel injury. Angiography performed one month after Pipeline embolization revealed significant stagnation but not complete occlusion of blood flow inside the pseudoaneurysm cavity. Dual antiplatelet therapy was replaced with single antiplatelet therapy. Follow-up angiograms three months after Pipeline embolization confirmed complete obliteration of the pseudoaneurysm and successful endoluminal reconstruction of the damaged vessel. Despite the possibility of short-term bleeding and the need for dual antiplatelet therapy administration for a certain period, the use of flow-diverting stents is a feasible vessel-sparing option in the management of intracranial internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysms resulting from transsphenoidal surgery injuries if intraoperative hemodynamic stability can be achieved with effective packing.

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The true posterior communicating artery (TPCoA) aneurysms are rare and endovascular treatment for such lesions is limited in literature.

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Arteriovenous fistulas at the craniocervical junction are rare vascular malformations with frequent hemorrhagic presentations, which may have a concurrent pial feeder aneurysm. A 65-year-old man presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage and angiography showed an epidural arteriovenous fistula at the C-2 level with an anterior spinal feeder aneurysm without perimedullary venous drainage. Transarterial coil embolization of the ruptured aneurysm and partial Onyx embolization of the shunt led to thrombosis of the aneurysm. However, three years later angiography showed an increased shunt flow and recurrence of the aneurysm. Transvenous embolization of the shunt using coils and Onyx yielded complete obliteration of the shunt, thus leading to occlusion of the aneurysm. This case demonstrates that partial transarterial embolization of arteriovenous fistula leaves a risk of rebleeding, whereas complete obliteration of the shunt with a transvenous approach can lead to disappearance of the flow-related aneurysm without embolization of the aneurysm itself.

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We present the first case using a novel flow diverter, the Silk Vista Baby (Balt, Montmorency, France), in combination with a low-profile braided stent, the Baby Leo (Balt, Montmorency, France), in a T configuration that we term Flow-T. We describe the technical characteristics of the case as well as the early follow-up results. We believe that this combination may provide an alternative to standard T-stenting and alternative to treat bifurcation aneurysms.

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There is increasing interest in venous sinus stenting in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension who are refractory to medical therapy. Often the transverse sinus stenoses are bilateral, however, and there is no clear evidence for whether we should stent one or both sides in these patients. Our practice is to first stent one side, and in this brief case report, we demonstrate complete resolution of the contralateral stenosis in one such patient who underwent stenting. Her symptoms also completely resolved, and so this case highlights the dynamic fluctuant nature of the transverse sinuses.

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Dolichoectasia of the distal internal carotid artery, posterior communication artery (PCoA) and posterior cerebral artery is an extremely rare abnormality. Dolichoectasia of the internal carotid artery, PCoA and the P1 segment of posterior cerebral artery can be postulated its pathogenesis by the embryological perspective basis from caudal ramus of the internal carotid artery terminus. The pathogenesis and treatment strategy are not well established. We reviewed and proposed embryological perspective, pathogenesis, clinical setting, radiological findings and management of this rare malformation.