SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: International ophthalmology

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Goldenhar syndrome is well known for its classical triad of epibulbar dermoids or lipodermoids, auricular appendages and pretragal fistulas. Here we report a case of Goldenhar syndrome with an unusual association of a fibroepithelial polyp attached to a limbal dermoid. A case of Goldenhar syndrome in a 5-month-old male infant presented with the features of a fibroepithelial polyp attached to a limbal dermoid, right-sided polydactylia with hypoplastic thumb, and accessory preauricular appendages on the left side. The association of a fibroepithelial polyp attached to a limbal dermoid with Goldenhar syndrome is a rare report in the literature. In these cases, regular follow-up with an ophthalmologist is important to monitor the visual development of the patient. Ideally, a multidisciplinary approach is required to manage the other associated anomalies.

Concepts: The Association, Case, Dermoid cyst, Teratoma, Sunshine pop, Hypoplasia

28

Childhood ocular trauma is a preventable cause of visual impairment and blindness worldwide. This prospective study was conducted to explore the profile of eye injuries in pediatric patients referring to a tertiary eye center in Tehran, Iran. Six hundred consecutive pediatric patients aged 17 or less who presented to emergency department of Farabi Hospital were enrolled. Age and sex of pediatric patients, time of trauma, time between trauma and presentation, place of injury, etiology of eye injury, visual acuity, and type of injury based on Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology were collected. Mean (±SD) age of cases was 7.9 ± 4.8. Male to female ratio was 2.3:1. More than 70 % of the patients presented less than 12 h after ocular trauma. Most injuries occurred at home (57.7 %) followed by street (20.3 %). Twelve patients had visual acuity lower than 0.1 at initial visit. Projectile trauma was the most common cause (35.8 %) followed by blunt trauma (33.3 %). 86.3 % of traumatic events consisted in closed globe injuries. Parents should be involved more effectively in care and supervision of their children especially for boys, at home and on holidays.

Concepts: Hospital, Injuries, Ophthalmology, Cataract, Eye injury

28

To compare the blood agar (BA), sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and chocolate agar (CA) for the isolation of fungi in patients with mycotic keratitis. Corneal Scrapings of 229 patients with clinically diagnosed microbial keratitis were inoculated on BA, SDA, CA. The culture media were evaluated for the rate and time taken for the fungal growth. Seventy six of 229 patients had fungal keratitis. Fungus grew on BA in 60/76(78.9 %), on SDA in 76/76 (100 %), on CA in 40/76(52.6 %) patients. The fungi which grew on BA (60/76) also grown on SDA at the same time. The colony morphologies of different fungi were better on SDA than BA/CA. Among the different culture media, SDA is essential for the isolation fungi in patients with mycotic keratitis.

Concepts: Bacteria, Eukaryote, Fungus, Yeast, Animal, Keratitis, Agar plate, Growth medium

27

Comparison between treatment with wavefront optimized and custom-Q laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ablations. Our study included 400 eyes of 200 patients divided into two equal groups. All patients were treated for myopia and myopic astigmatism with LASIK. The first group was treated with wavefront optimized ablation and the second group with custom-Q ablation. They were examined preoperatively and postoperatively to assess asphericity, image quality, and other classical outcome parameters. The wavefront optimized ablation group comprised 200 eyes with a mean spherical equivalent refraction (SE) of -5.2188 diopters (D) (range: -1.15 to -10.50 D); the mean Q-value changed from 0.30 preoperatively to 0.06 postoperatively. The custom-Q ablation group also comprised 200 eyes with a mean SE of -5.1575 D (range: -1.35 to -9.00 D); the mean Q-value changed from 0.32 preoperatively to 0.03 postoperatively. A statistically significant difference in postoperative change in Q-values (P = 0.02) and in postoperative visual acuity (P = 0.42) between the two groups was noted. There was no difference between the two groups regarding refractive correction. There was a marginally significant change in BSCVA (best spectacle-corrected visual acuity) between the two groups, and less impairment in the corneal asphericity in the custom-Q group.

Concepts: Ophthalmology, Refractive surgery, Lens, Presbyopia, Eyeglass prescription, Contact lens, Refractive error, Hyperopia

27

To evaluate the influence of pterygium morphology on the efficacy and safety of fibrin glue in pterygium surgery with conjunctival autografting. A prospective case series. During a period of 15 months, 45 patients (51 eyes) were recruited from the General Hospital for pterygium surgery. Seven eyes (13.73 %) were operated on for a recurrent pterygium. Autologous conjunctiva was harvested from the superior bulbar conjunctiva and fixed with fibrin glue. The pterygia were preoperatively divided into atrophic/grade 1 (n = 18; 35.29 %), intermediate/grade 2 (n = 22; 43.14 %) or fleshy/grade 3 (n = 11; 21.57 %) according to clinical morphology. Patients were evaluated for intraoperative and postoperative complications and recurrence rates. The success rate was defined by no pterygium recurrences. Patients with 2-year follow-ups were included in this study. Fifty-one patients (21 females/30 males) with a mean age of 60-65 years (range 24-87 years) took part in the study. All patients completed the study. No intraoperative complications were noted. Postsurgical complications included graft edema (n = 4; 7.8 %), graft hyperemia (n = 2; 3.8 %), and graft dislocation (n = 3; 5.9 %); these complications were transient. One graft unfastened completely (2 %) and five pterygium recurrences occurred (n = 5; 9.8 %). The overall success rate was 90 % after 2 years. In grade I group there were no recurrences, in grade 2 group there were two recurrences, and in grade 3 group there were three recurrences. There were significantly more recurrences in grade 3 group than in grade 2 group. There were more recurrences in both groups than in group 1 (60 vs 40 vs 0 % of all recurrences, p ≤ 0.05). The use of fibrin glue is a safe, easy and effective technique for attaching the conjunctival autograft in pterygium surgery. The morphology of pterygium influences recurrence rates, without significance for intraoperative and postoperative complications.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Rates, Eye, Conjunctiva, Recurrence relation, Pinguecula

27

To determine changes in choroidal thickness in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) during the first 3 months after initial diagnosis and assess variable therapeutic interventions via enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). In this prospective study, choroidal thickness was measured via EDI-OCT both in the affected and fellow eyes of 10 patients with CSCR at the fovea, as well as at 500 and 1,000 μm both temporal and nasal from the centre of the fovea and at the leakage point (if present), visualised via fluorescein angiography. Follow-up measurements were performed after 2-3 weeks, 6-8 weeks and 3 months. Seven of the 10 patients received additional systemic therapy with oral acetazolamide. A control group of eight healthy subjects was recruited to determine normal choroidal thickness in healthy eyes. The mean age of the 10 patients (9 male, 1 female) in the CSCR group was 42.1 (±9.3) years. The choroid in the affected eyes was significantly thickened at baseline compared to fellow eyes and the eyes of healthy subjects. The choroid in the fellow eyes also revealed a slight thickening at baseline compared to normal eyes. During the 3 month follow-up period, the choroidal thickness of the affected eyes showed a highly significant decrease, but did not reach normal levels. Minor changes could also be observed in the fellow eyes but did not reach statistical significance. In patients with CSCR, the average choroidal thickness not only demonstrated a significant thickening at baseline, but also showed a marked decrease after 3 months, yet not reaching normal levels. Our data indicate that after 3 months, normalisation of choroidal thickness is not yet completed.

Concepts: Optics, Measurement, Medical imaging, Retina, Arithmetic mean, Ophthalmology, Central serous retinopathy, Choroid

27

A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Nakuru, Kenya to assess the prevalence of refractive error and the spectacle coverage in a population aged ≥50 years. Of the 5,010 subjects who were eligible, 4,414 underwent examination (response rate 88.1 %). LogMAR visual acuity was assessed in all participants and refractive error was measured in both eyes using a Topcon auto refractor RM8800. Detailed interviews were undertaken and ownership of spectacles was assessed. Refractive error was responsible for 51.7 % of overall visual impairment (VI), 85.3 % (n = 191) of subjects with mild VI, 42.7 % (n = 152) of subjects with moderate VI, 16.7 % (n = 3) of subjects with severe VI and no cases of blindness. Myopia was more common than hyperopia affecting 59.5 % of those with refractive error compared to 27.4 % for hyperopia. High myopia (<-5.0 DS) was also more common than extreme hyperopia (>+5.0 DS). Of those who needed distance spectacles (spectacle coverage), 25.5 % owned spectacles. In conclusion, the oldest, most poor and least educated are most likely to have no spectacles and they should be specifically targeted when refractive services are put in place.

Concepts: Visual acuity, Ophthalmology, Myopia, Corrective lens, Refractive error, Hyperopia, Visual impairment, Glasses

27

Conventional treatment of idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (ICSC) consists of argon laser, photodynamic therapy, or observation. However, in cases of atypical bullous ICSC with exudative detachment preventing any laser therapy, a surgical approach with external drainage of fluid has been performed. We present a case of ICSC with persistent macula involving exudative retinal detachment without evidence of uveitis that responded favorably to internal drainage by vitrectomy along with a scleral buckle placement. Our case, treated with internal drainage, also demonstrated successful long-term reattachment of the serous retinal detachment without any additional complications from the surgery.

Concepts: Medicine, Laser, Retina, Ophthalmology, Retinal detachment, Central serous retinopathy, Posterior vitreous detachment, Scleral buckle

27

Applanation tonometry is widely performed as the most accurate method of measuring intraocular pressure in the clinical setting. Disposable tonometer heads reduce the risk of transmitting infection during applanation and eliminate tonometer head cleaning, which is time-consuming. We performed a study to investigate whether the Tonojet disposable tonometer (Luneau, France) gave comparable intraocular pressure measurements to the standard Goldmann tonometer produced by Haag Streit (Switzerland). The study was performed in a busy general secondary referral ophthalmology clinic in Beaumont Hospital over a 15-day period. We measured intraocular pressure with the Goldmann and Tonojet tonometers in 293 eyes. Patients were randomised as to which tonometer was used first. A diagnosis of glaucoma or ocular hypertension was noted. Central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured. The measurements taken with the Tonojet were on average 2.2 mmHg lower than corresponding measurements taken with the Goldmann applanation tonometer head. The bias was present over the entire range of pressures. The 95 % limits of agreement between the two tonometers ranged from -5.9 to +1.4 mmHg. In the cohort of eyes with ocular hypertension/glaucoma the difference was significantly higher (2.8 vs. 2.1 mmHg). The bias was independent of CCT. We found that the Tonojet disposable tonometer tends to underestimate intraocular pressure compared with the Goldmann. The bias is non-systematic, present over the entire range of pressures and independent of corneal thickness. We conclude that the Tonojet is not sufficiently accurate to constitute a suitable alternative to the Goldmann.

Concepts: Measurement, Intraocular pressure, Glaucoma, Ophthalmology, Tonometry, Topical anesthetic, Oxybuprocaine, Timeline of temperature and pressure measurement technology

27

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a rare syndrome characterized by postural headache associated with a low cerebrospinal fluid pressure in the absence of dural puncture or penetrating trauma. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically shows diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement, subdural fluid collections, prominence of cerebral venous sinuses and brain descent. Visual signs and symptoms have been described infrequently in patients with SIH. These include third or sixth nerve palsy, superior nasal quadrantanopia and temporal hemianopia. We report a 34 year-old woman who presented with a two-year history of orthostatic headache, dizziness and transient visual obscurations. Campimetry showed a bilateral concentric visual field defect. She also described that intermittently a transparent fluid leaked out of her nose. She had no past history of trauma, sinus surgery or intracranial surgery. Cranial MRI was normal. Neuro-ophthalmological examination ruled out any other causes of concentric visual field defects. Lumbar puncture showed a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) opening pressure of 9 cm H(2)O. Radioisotope cisternography suggested a dural leak at cribiform plate. The cribiform plate region was repaired endoscopically with improvement of all symptoms. One year later she remains asymptomatic and the visual field defects have improved.

Concepts: Spinal cord, Brain, Magnetic resonance imaging, Multiple sclerosis, Neurology, Cerebrospinal fluid, Visual field, Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak