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Journal: International journal of STD & AIDS


To investigate health-related quality of life in HIV-infected intravenous drug users registered but not engaged in HIV outpatient care (missing ≥2 outpatient appointments over 1 year or non-attendance for ≥6 months) we conducted a cross-sectional study to examine health-related quality of life of HIV-infected intravenous drug users registered for care at an inner city HIV unit. EQ-5D, SF-36, SF-6D, mood disorder, clinical and substance misuse data were collected. Mean scores and preference derived utility scores were calculated. Statistical relationships between health-related quality of life and other variables were explored using univariate and multivariate analysis. Fifty-five patients were recruited, 64% were males. The mean anxiety value was 11.44 (anxious) and mean depression score was 9.3 (borderline depressed). The mean EQ-5D utility was 0.45 (95% CI 0.35, 0.55) and mean SF-6D utility was 0.52 (95% CI 0.48, 0.55). There was no statistical relationship between HIV indices, substance misuse and EQ-5D and SF-6D utility. Anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with EQ-5D and SF-6D utility values on univariate and multivariate analysis. Health-related quality of life was reduced in this HIV-infected intravenous drug user population. Whilst hepatitis C co-infection and substance misuse did not affect health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression had a significant impact on it.

Concepts: HIV, Anxiety, Statistics, Multivariate statistics, Hepatitis C, Addiction, Utility, Drug injection


This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the nutritional status and dietary intake of HIV-infected children and adolescents and the relationship between nutritional status and dietary intake and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The sample was composed of 49 subjects aged 7-17 years and living in Florianópolis, Brazil. Nutritional status was assessed by height-for-age and body mass index-for-age. Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Spearman correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to determine the relationship between energy, nutrient intake and body mass index-for-age and CD4(+) T-cell count and viral load. The mean body mass index-for-age and height-for-age values were -0.26 ± 0.86 and -0.56 ± 0.92, respectively. The energy intake was 50.8% above the estimated energy requirement and inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, calcium and vitamin C was present in 100%, 57.1%, 40.8%, 61.2% and 26.5% of the sample, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that energy intake was correlated with CD4+ T-cell count (r = 0.33; p = 0.028) and viral load (r = -0.35; p = 0.019). These data showed low body mass index-for-age and height-for-age z-scores, high energy intake and inadequate intake of important nutrients for immune function, growth and control of chronic diseases. A lower energy intake was correlated with viral suppression and immune preservation.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Linear regression, Nutrition, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, Econometrics, Nutrient, Vitamin, Essential nutrient


Alternative modes of antiretroviral administration are sought for people with impaired intestinal passage and/or absorption. We present a case of late HIV diagnosis (CD4+ count 160 cells/µL) with gastric outlet obstruction due to stomach adenocarcinoma. Co-morbidities included oesophageal candidiasis, Helicobacter pylori-positive duodenal ulcers and cytomegalovirus duodenitis. The gastric outlet obstruction required total parenteral nutrition and parenteral medication during four weeks of diagnostic work-up leading to pyloric resection. Crushed dolutegravir, abacavir and lamivudine were administered during this time in the evening via nasogastric tube, which was kept clamped overnight. The tube was unclamped in the morning and stomach content was drained during the daytime. This mode of administration resulted in rapid and sustained viral load suppression (from 300,000 to 115 copies per mL in 28 days, 81 copies/mL after 42 days of treatment and less than 40 copies/mL thereafter). Therapeutic drug monitoring confirmed sufficient antiretroviral plasma levels during this mode of administration. The absorption of crushed dolutegravir, abacavir and lamivudine in the stomach may be considered in people with questionable gastrointestinal passage or impaired gastric emptying to achieve viral load suppression.


We present the updated International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infections guideline for the management of non-gonococcal urethritis in men. This guideline recommends confirmation of urethritis in symptomatic men before starting treatment. It does not recommend testing asymptomatic men for the presence of urethritis. All men with urethritis should be tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and ideally M. genitalium using a NAAT as this is highly likely to improve clinical outcomes. If a NAAT is positive for gonorrhoea, a culture should be performed before treatment. In view of the increasing evidence that azithromycin 1 g may result in the development of antimicrobial resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium azithromycin 1 g is no longer recommended as first line therapy, which should be doxycycline 100 mg bd for 7 days. If azithromycin is to be prescribed an extended of 500 mg, then 250 mg daily for 4 days is to be preferred over 1 g stat. In men with persistent NGU, M. genitalium NAAT testing is recommended if not previously undertaken, as is Trichomonas vaginalis NAAT testing in populations where T. vaginalis is detectable in >2% of symptomatic women.

Concepts: Bacteria, Sexually transmitted disease, Chlamydia infection, Sexually transmitted diseases and infections, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Gonorrhea, Mycoplasma genitalium


A service evaluation of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) testing and result notification in patients attending a rapid testing service (Dean Street Express [DSE]) compared with those attending an existing ‘standard’ sexual health clinic (56 Dean Street [56DS]), and modelling the impact of the new service from 1 June 2014 to 31 May 2015.

Concepts: Health care, Health economics, Health, Hospital, Sexually transmitted disease, Human sexual behavior, Sexually transmitted diseases and infections, Neisseria gonorrhoeae


Differences in risk behaviours between men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women have important implications for HIV and STI transmission. We examined differences in risk behaviours, HIV/STI testing, self-reported HIV/STI diagnoses, and linkage to HIV care between men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women across China.

Concepts: HIV, AIDS, Sexual intercourse, Gender, Oral sex, Human sexual behavior, Condom, Vaginal lubrication


Mycoplasma genitalium (M. genitalium) was first isolated from the urethral swabs of two symptomatic men with urethritis in 1980. Published prevalence rates vary greatly between populations studied. A number of urogenital conditions have been ascribed to M. genitalium, which is recognised to cause a sexually transmitted infection. The association of M. genitalium with non-specific urethritis is now well established, but the evidence supporting its role in both male and female infertility remains inconclusive. Laboratory methods are challenging and there is a lack of test standardisation. The recommended treatment of the infection is azithromycin as a single 1 gm dose. However, in recent years a macrolide resistance has been observed. More studies are required to establish the clinical importance of M. genitalium in urogenital conditions, particularly infertility, and to establish the role for screening and treatment in high-risk populations.

Concepts: Mycoplasma, Sexually transmitted disease, Human sexual behavior, Chlamydia infection, Mollicutes, Macrolide, Mycoplasma genitalium, Non-gonococcal urethritis


HIV self-testing has the potential to increase testing frequency and uptake. This pilot study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of HIV self-testing in a sample of sexually active men who have sex with men in Peru and Brazil. Participants were trained to use a whole blood rapid HIV self-test and instructed to use the self-test monthly during this three-month study. Test acceptability was measured with self-reported use of the test at the one-month and three-month study visits, and test feasibility was assessed by direct observation of self-test administration at the final three-month visit. A total of 103 participants (52 in Peru and 51 in Brazil) were enrolled, and 86% completed the three-month study. Nearly all participants reported use of the self-test (97% at one-month and 98% at three-month visit), and all participants correctly interpreted the self-administered test results when observed using the test at the final study visit. HIV self-testing with a blood-based assay was highly acceptable and feasible. HIV self-testing may have the potential to increase testing frequency and to reach high-risk men who have sex with men not currently accessing HIV-testing services.

Concepts: HIV, AIDS, Sexual intercourse, Blood, Observation, Oral sex, Human sexual behavior, Human sexuality


Most of the information on clinical factors related to HIV infection is focused on key populations and young people. Therefore, there is little information on clinical factors related to HIV infection in older persons (>45 years old). In this study, data on CD4 lymphocyte counts were analyzed on adults who are linked to care and have their first CD4 cell count done from different regions of the Republic of Panama from 2012 to 2017. Samples were grouped according to late presentation status, region of origin in the country, year, gender, and age groups. Factors associated with late presentation to care and advanced HIV were assessed on each group by multivariable logistic regression. Late presentation to care was observed in 71.6% of the evaluated subjects, and advanced HIV in 54.5%. Late presentation was associated with males (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.1-1.6, p = 0.03), age greater than 45 years old (AOR = 2.3 CI= 1.8-2.9, p < 0.001), and being from regions where antiretroviral clinics are not well instituted (AOR = 2.1, CI = 1.6-2.7, p < 0.001). Despite an increase in subjects linked to care with a CD4 test performed over the years, late presentation remained constant. Therefore, prevention policies must be reformulated. Promotion of routine HIV testing, accessibility among all population groups, installation of antiretroviral clinics, and implementation of programs as rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy should be rolled out nationally.


Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) have higher HIV incidence and prevalence when compared to other MSM, despite similar levels of condom use and testing. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could be a useful intervention to reduce these inequalities. This research therefore aims to understand the dimensions of acceptability of a potential PrEP service for BMSM aged 18-45 years in London. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 PrEP-eligible BMSM between April and August 2016. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, then subject to a thematic framework analysis, informed by intersectionality theory. BMSM had distinct preferences for sexual health services, which have implications for PrEP service development. Three primary domains emerged in our analysis: proximity and anonymity; quality, efficiency and reassurance; and understanding, empathy and identity. These relate, respectively, to preferences regarding clinic location and divisions from community, features of service delivery and staff characteristics. Due to concerns about confidentiality, community-based services may not be useful for this group. Careful consideration in regards to components used in service development will facilitate ongoing engagement. Interpersonal skills of staff are central to service acceptability, particularly when staff are perceived to be from similar cultural backgrounds as their patients.