SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics

169

To evaluate the incidence of leukoencephalopathy after whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in patients with brain metastases.

Concepts: Medicine, Cancer, Oncology, Cervical cancer, Chemotherapy, Prostate cancer, Melanoma

168

PURPOSE: New radiation therapy modalities have broadened treatment options for older women with breast cancer, but it is unclear how clinical factors, geographic region, and physician preference affect the choice of radiation therapy modality. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database to identify women diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer from 1998 to 2007 who underwent breast-conserving surgery. We assessed the temporal trends in, and costs of, the adoption of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and brachytherapy. Using hierarchical logistic regression, we evaluated the relationship between the use of these new modalities and patient and regional characteristics. RESULTS: Of 35,060 patients, 69.9% received conventional external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Although overall radiation therapy use remained constant, the use of IMRT increased from 0.0% to 12.6% from 1998 to 2007, and brachytherapy increased from 0.7% to 9.0%. The statistical variation in brachytherapy use attributable to the radiation oncologist and geographic region was 41.4% and 9.5%, respectively (for IMRT: 23.8% and 22.1%, respectively). Women undergoing treatment at a free-standing radiation facility were significantly more likely to receive IMRT than were women treated at a hospital-based facility (odds ratio for IMRT vs EBRT: 3.89 [95% confidence interval, 2.78-5.45]). No such association was seen for brachytherapy. The median radiation therapy cost per treated patient increased from $5389 in 2001 to $8539 in 2007. CONCLUSIONS: IMRT and brachytherapy use increased substantially from 1998 to 2007; overall, radiation therapy costs increased by more than 50%. Radiation oncologists played an important role in treatment choice for both types of radiation therapy, whereas geographic region played a bigger role in the use of IMRT than brachytherapy.

Concepts: Medicine, Cancer, Oncology, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Radiation oncologist, Radiation oncology, External beam radiotherapy

62

Humans have reported sensations of seeing light flashes during radiotherapy, even with their eyes closed. These observations have been attributed to either direct excitation of retinal pigments or generation of Cherenkov light inside the eye. Both in vivo human and ex vivo animal eye imaging was utilized to confirm light intensity and spectra to determine its origin and overall observability.

43

Much of the volume of solid tumors typically exists in a chronically hypoxic microenvironment that has been shown to result in both chemotherapy and radiation therapy resistance. The purpose of this study was to use localized microbubble delivery to overcome hypoxia prior to therapy.

40

The radiobiology of prostate cancer may favor the extreme hypofractionation inherent in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT); however, data from a large multicenter study are lacking. We therefore examined the hypothesis that dose-escalated SBRT can be safely administered across multiple institutions, with favorable 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates compared with historical controls.

38

SpaceOAR, a Food and Drug Administration-approved hydrogel intended to create a rectal-prostate space, was evaluated in a single-blind phase III trial of image guided intensity modulated radiation therapy. A total of 222 men were randomized 2:1 to the spacer or control group and received 79.2 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions to the prostate with or without the seminal vesicles. The present study reports the final results with a median follow-up period of 3 years.

Concepts: Time, Medicine, Cancer, Optics, Radiation therapy, Semen, Prostate, Seminal vesicle

37

Recent studies suggest that ultrahigh-dose-rate, “FLASH,” electron radiation therapy (RT) decreases normal tissue damage while maintaining tumor response compared with conventional dose rate RT. Here, we describe a novel RT apparatus that delivers FLASH proton RT (PRT) using double scattered protons with computed tomography guidance and provide the first report of proton FLASH RT-mediated normal tissue radioprotection.

29

A randomized phase II study was performed to measure the potential therapeutic effects of yoga on fatigue, erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, and overall quality of life (QOL) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy (RT).

Concepts: Medicine, Clinical trial, Cancer, Proton therapy, Prostate cancer, Urology, Radiation therapy, Hormonal therapy

28

Permanent breast seed implant is an accelerated partial breast irradiation technique realizing the insertion of (103)Pd seeds in the seroma after lumpectomy. We report the 5-year efficacy and tolerance for a cohort, pooling patients from 3 clinical trials.

Concepts: Cohort study, Clinical trial, Breast cancer, Reproduction, Embryo, Effectiveness, ClinicalTrials.gov, Seed

28

Cetuximab-containing chemotherapy is known to be effective for KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer; however, it is not clear whether cetuximab-based preoperative chemoradiation confers an additional benefit compared with chemoradiation without cetuximab in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Cancer, Oncology, Colorectal cancer, Colon, Sigmoidoscopy, Cetuximab, Panitumumab