Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery


This study investigated short- and long-term postoperative skeletal changes following intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) for mandibular prognathism, as determined from lateral cephalograms. The subjects were 20 patients with mandibular prognathism who had undergone surgical orthodontic treatment combined with IVRO. Lateral cephalograms were taken at six time points: 1 month before surgery, and 1 day, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and approximately 2 years after surgery. Intermaxillary fixation (IMF) with four monocortical screws was maintained for 1 week in all patients. Mean posterior movement of the menton (Me) was 5.9mm at surgery. 3 months after surgery, the FMA and FH-CorMe angles had increased 6.3 and 6.2 degrees, respectively, indicating clockwise rotation of the distal segment of the mandible. This rotation was observed in all 20 patients, suggesting that postoperative rotation of the mandible in the postoperative short term is likely to occur after IVRO and could be considered an adaptation of the mastication system newly established by surgery. In the long term after IVRO, Me had moved anteriorly by only 0.9mm and the relapse ratio was 15.3%. These findings suggest the excellent long-term stability of surgical orthodontic treatment combined with IVRO in patients with mandibular prognathism.

Concepts: Time, Surgery, Economics, Term, Dentistry, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Orthodontics, Prognathism


Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an inherited disease characterized by hypogammaglobulinaemia and impaired humoural immunoresponse and is mainly associated with recurrent infections of the airway and the digestive tract. An 18-year old female with a diagnosis of CVID associated with a devastating necrotizing periodontitis, ultimately resulting in complete destruction of the periodontium and loss of all teeth, is reported. Clinical, biochemical, microbiological and radiographic examinations are presented. The report highlights the likely importance of immunoglobulin replacement and intensive dental hygiene in CVID patients, and the devastating effect of non-compliance in such patients.

Concepts: Immune system, Disease, Infectious disease, Immunodeficiency, Oral hygiene, Primary immunodeficiency, Common variable immunodeficiency, Hypogammaglobulinemia


Trigeminal nerve injury is the most problematic consequence of dental surgical procedures with major medico-legal implications. This study reports the signs and symptoms that are the features of trigeminal nerve injuries caused by mandibular third molar (M3M) surgery. 120 patients with nerve injury following M3M surgery were assessed. All data were analysed using the SPSS statistical programme and Microsoft Excel. 53 (44.2%) inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury cases and 67 (55.8%) lingual nerve injury (LNI) cases were caused by third molar surgery (TMS). Neuropathy was demonstrable in all patients with varying degrees of paraesthesia, dysaesthesia (in the form of burning pain), allodynia and hyperalgesia. Pain was one of the presenting signs and symptoms in 70% of all cases. Significantly more females had IAN injuries and LNIs (p<0.05). The mean ages of the two groups of patients were similar. Speech and eating were significantly more problematic for patients with LNIs. In conclusion, chronic pain is often a symptom after TMS-related nerve injury, resulting in significant functional problems. Better dissemination of good practice in TMS will significantly minimize these complex nerve injuries and prevent unnecessary suffering.

Concepts: Surgery, Symptom, Pain, Cranial nerves, Mandibular nerve, Trigeminal nerve, Lingual nerve, Inferior alveolar nerve


This study reports the case of a patient with a severely resorbed mandible who was treated without a bone graft, using short implants, internal rigid fixation, rhBMP-2 and β-tricalcium phosphate. A 76-year-old woman, with a severely resorbed mandible (less than 3mm), reported a history of nearly 25years of complete edentulism and consecutive treatment failures, with total bilateral exposed inferior alveolar nerves and complete bone resorption of the inferior border in some areas. The treatment of choice was the placement of a 2.0mm thick unilock bone plate (MatrixMandible, Synthes Maxillofacial, Paoli, PA, USA), to reinforce the mandible. Eight short implants with a regular platform (Nobel Biocare, Goteborg, Sweden) were placed: three on the external oblique line on both sides and two on the symphysis. In order to augment mandible height and coat the exposed thread of the anterior implants, rhBMP-2 (Infuse Bone, Meditronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (Cerasorb; Curasan, Kleinostheim, Germany) were used. Four 1.3mmL miniplates were placed to support the graft. 14months after surgery, the patient was satisfied and had excellent function without complications.

Concepts: Bone, Surgery, Bone resorption, Sweden, Dental implant, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Abdominal external oblique muscle, Nobel Biocare


It has been suggested that third molars increase mandibular fragility because they do not contribute to its strength. For ethical reasons, a human study design that would permit the elucidation of this interference is not possible. This study evaluated the impact of the presence of erupted third molars on the mandibular angle of resistance when submitted to trauma. A three-dimensional (3D) mandibular model was obtained through finite element methodology using computed tomography (CT) with the geometry and mechanical properties to reproduce a normal mandibular structure. Human mandibles with no, one or two erupted third molars were evaluated. Whenever the third molar was present there was a greater concentration of tensions around the cervical part of its alveolus. Approximated Von Mises equivalent stress of the third molar region was 107.035MPa in the mandible with teeth and 64.6948MPa in the mandible without teeth. In the condylar region it was 151.65MPa when the third molar was present and 184.496MPa when it was absent. The digital models created proved that the mandibular angle becomes more fragile in the presence of third molars. When they are absent the energy concentrates on the lateral e posterior aspect of the condylar neck.

Concepts: Concentration, Mandible, Model, Teeth, Molar, Temporomandibular joint, The Fragile, Ludwig von Mises


We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with bilateral blowout fractures. She presented with diplopia showing impaired abduction of the left eye soon after trauma. No other orbito-ocular signs, such as exophthalmos, ptosis, or chemosis, were found. Orbital reconstruction was performed, but no improvement in her ophthalmoplegia was observed after surgery. A carotid angiography showed that she was suffering from a posteriorly draining carotid-cavernous sinus fistula with isolated abducens nerve palsy. Coil embolization was conducted under the consultation of a neurosurgeon, after which her ophthalmoplegia resolved fully. This is a rare case of posteriorly draining carotid-cavernous sinus fistula without classic orbito-ocular signs, the absence of which may cause diagnostic confusion.

Concepts: Scientific method, Surgery, Cranial nerves, Hydrocephalus, Fistula, Oculomotor nerve palsy, Abducens nerve, Lateral rectus muscle


Oral mucositis is a common and irritating complication of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for malignancies. Current treatments have failed to achieve complete remission of this complication. The St. John’s wort plant (Hypericum perforatum) has long been known for its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. The current study was designed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of the topical and systemic administration of H. perforatum extract on oral mucositis. Oral mucositis was induced in 72 male golden hamsters by administration of 5-fluorouracil (60mg/kg), on days 0, 5, and 10 of the study. The cheek pouch was scratched with a sterile needle on days 1 and 2. On days 12-17, H. perforatum extract topical gel 10%, oral H. perforatum extract (300mg/kg), and gel base groups were treated and then compared with a control group. Weights and blood samples were evaluated, biopsies from buccal lesions were examined histopathologically, and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured. Both of the H. perforatum extract treatment groups saw a significant relief in oral mucositis compared to the control and base gel groups; the systemic form was superior to the topical form. H. perforatum extract, administered orally or topically, expedited the healing of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in hamsters.

Concepts: Immune system, Cancer, Chemotherapy, Topical, Mucositis, St John's wort, Hyperforin, Clusiaceae


Extreme variation in the reported incidence of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) disturbances suggests that neurosensory disturbances after orthognathic surgery have not been evaluated adequately. Here we review the reported incidence of IAN injury after orthognathic surgery and assess recently reported methods for evaluating sensory disturbances. A search was conducted of the English-language scientific literature published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2013 using the Limo KU Leuven search platform. Information on various aspects of assessing IAN injury was extracted from 61 reports. In 16 reports (26%), the incidence of injury was not indicated. Preoperative IAN status was not assessed in 22 reports (36%). The IAN assessor was described in detail in 21 reports (34%), while information on the training of the assessors was mentioned in only two reports (3%). Subjective evaluation was the most common method for assessing neurosensory deficit. We conclude that the observed wide variation in the reported incidence of IAN injury is due to a lack of standardized assessment procedures and reporting. Thus, an international consensus meeting on this subject is needed in order to establish a standard-of-care method.

Concepts: Evaluation, Report, Assessment, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, 1990


Strong mandibular angles and a heavy chin are perceived as masculine features, so surgical feminization of female or transgender faces may warrant mandibular base narrowing (borders and angles) and a reduction in chin width and height. With this in mind, we have devised an interdental midline osteotomy (triangular in shape and with a caudal base) to accompany a box-shaped impaction osteotomy of the chin symphysis and horizontal triangular resection of the lateral mandibular border. The reduction of the intergonial width and of the mandibular border and chin widths takes place upon closure of the midline defect. Between November 2016 and August 2017, five patients agreed to the mandibular feminization osteotomy and were followed up thereafter for 6-13 months. All expressed satisfaction with the results; no dental, periodontal, or temporomandibular joint-related complications were encountered. This technique is a viable alternative to buccal decortication, chin reduction osteotomy, and masseter reduction surgery.


Superimposition of radiographic imaging is used to evaluate patient growth and the effects of surgical and/or orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of superimposition between two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) superimpositions. 2D lateral cephalograms were generated from the initial and final cone beam computed tomography scans (CBCT) of 18 patients and superimposed. Both 3D CBCT and 2D CBCT generated lateral cephalograms were oriented to the Frankfort horizontal plane and superimposed according to the American Board of Orthodontics recommendations. Changes in landmark position were quantified from the resulting superimposition outcomes via linear measurements made with Dolphin software. Differences between the two methods were analyzed using paired t-tests. Measurements were repeated twice for 10 randomly selected scans to assess reliability by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis. Intra-examiner reliability was high for all measurements (ICC>0.84). Agreement between 2D and 3D superimposition outcomes, as measured by P-values, was low for ANS (P=0.026), B-point (P<0.001), ST Upper lip (P=0.019), U1 tip (P=0.010), and U1 apex (P=0.026). 2D measurements were significantly higher than 3D measurements for ANS, B-point, ST Upper lip, U1 tip, and U1 apex. Findings indicated that both methods of superimposition (2D and 3D) are highly reliable. Statistical differences between 2D and 3D superimposition outcomes were below the threshold of clinical significance.