SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: International journal of food sciences and nutrition

55

Wheat bran is a concentrated source of insoluble fibre. Fibre intakes are generally lower than recommendations. This paper reviews the physiological effects of wheat bran and the health benefits it may provide in terms of the prevention of diseases such as colon and breast cancers, cardiovascular disease, obesity and gastrointestinal diseases. In recognition of the weight of evidence, the European Food Safety Authority has recently approved two health claims for wheat bran and gastrointestinal health.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Cancer, Disease, Nutrition, The Canon of Medicine, Oat

29

We reviewed the scientific literature on the evidence of the relationship between palm oil and adverse effects on human health. Few studies have investigated the effects of palm oil per se, and the main reason why it has been associated with negative health effects is the relatively high content of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), particularly palmitic acid, which in turn have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and some tumours. However, more recent investigations on the topic seem to have reconsidered the negative role of the dietary SFAs as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and show that not only the type of fat, but also that the triglyceride structure plays a role in cholesterolaemia. As regards to a role in cancer, specific studies on dietary palmitic acid or palm oil and the risk of cancer development are scanty, and the evidence is not convincing.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Nutrition, Fatty acid, Triglyceride, Fat, Saturated fat, Palmitic acid

28

Chickpeas are rich sources of highly nutritious protein and dietary fibre; the health benefits of consuming legumes such as antioxidant activity (AoxA) could be effective for the expansion of their food uses. The technological properties and antioxidant potential of five pigmented chickpea cultivars were evaluated. Protein content of the grains varied from 24.9 to 27.4 g/100 g sample (dw). The cooking time (CT) of the whole grains ranged from 90.5 to 218.5 min; the lowest CT corresponded to Black ICC3761 cultivar. The total phenolic content (TPC) and AoxA [oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value] varied from 1.23 to 1.51 mg GAE/g sample (dw) and from 5011 to 5756 μmol TE/100 g sample (dw), respectively; Red ICC13124 showed the highest ORAC value. The differences in technological properties and AoxA among cultivars could be used in chickpea breeding programmes. Chickpea cultivars could contribute significantly to the management and/or prevention of degenerative diseases associated with free radical damage.

Concepts: Nutrition, Senescence, Antioxidant, Oxidative stress, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity, Chickpea, Cicer, Cicero

28

Yan73 is a ‘teinturier’ red wine variety cultivated in China and widely used in winemaking to strengthen red wine colour. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) applied to the grapevine cluster on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of the wine made from Yan73. Two hundred mg/l ABA was applied on Yan73 grapevine cluster during veraison. As they mature, these ABA-treated and untreated grape berries were transformed into wines, respectively, and the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these wines were compared. The results showed that phenolic content (total phenolics, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins) and antioxidant capacity were higher in the wine produced with ABA-treated Yan73 grapes than those in the wine from untreated grapes. Compared to Cabernet Sauvignon wine, Yan73 wine had higher phenolic content and stronger antioxidant capacity. These strongly suggest that exogenously applied ABA to Yan73 grapes can enhance phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of its wine, and Yan73 wine has the higher utilization value and potential for development.

Concepts: Vitis vinifera, Resveratrol, Wine, Oenology, Polyphenol, Grape, Cabernet Sauvignon, Anthocyanin

27

Abstract This review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of low glycemic index (GI) dietary intervention for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), specifically from the Asian perspective. A systematic review of the literature using multiple databases without time restriction was conducted. Three studies were retrieved based upon a priori inclusion criteria. While there was a trend towards improvement, no significant differences were observed in overall glycemic control and pregnancy outcomes in GDM women. However, a tendency for lower birth weight and birth centile if the intervention began earlier was noted. Low GI diets were well accepted and had identical macro-micronutrient compositions as the control diets. However, due to genetic, environment and especially food pattern discrepancies between Western countries and Asians, these results may not be contributed to Asian context. Clearly, there are limited studies focusing on the effect of low GI dietary intervention in women with GDM, particularly in Asia.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Nutrition, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes, Obstetrics, Gestational diabetes, Glycemic index, Diabetic diet

27

Abstract Bioassay-guided isolation of an aqueous methanolic extract of Vitis vinifera using pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity led to isolation of seven stilbenoids, wilsonol C (1), heyneanol A (2), ampelopsin A (3), pallidol A (4), cis-piceid (5), trans-piceid (6) and trans-resveratrol (7). The structures were established on the basis of NMR and MS spectroscopic data interpretation. All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase, and stilbenoid 1 exhibited potent inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase with IC50 values of 6.7 ± 0.7 µM.

Concepts: Effect, Resveratrol, The Roots, Pancreatic lipase, Stilbenoid, Piceid, Stilbenoids

27

Abstract In recent years, ready-to eat breakfast cereals prepared with fruit ingredients have gained particular attention due to their polyphenolic contents and health promoting effects. In this study, the matrix effect of blueberry, oat meal, whole milk or skimmed milk on polyphenols, antioxidative potential as well as their potential bioavailability were investigated. The phenolic properties of whole milk, skimmed milk, blueberry and oat meal were investigated and the changes in combinations of the ingredients were determined. Milk addition decreased the total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin content of samples statistically and had negative effect on antioxidant activity showing differences among different methods. According to HPLC results, it was not possible to detect catechin in mixtures due to milk addition. In vitro digestion method was used to determine potential bioavailability of phenolic compounds. According to in vitro digestion procedure results, whole or skimmed milk did not affect the total phenolic content of the proportion passing to the blood from intestine.

Concepts: Nutrition, Antioxidant, Catechin, Flavonoid, Resveratrol, Tannin, Polyphenol, Anthocyanin

27

Abstract Groundnut cake (GNC) and soybean cake (SBC) by-product of agriculture industry had protein and protein digestibility in the range of 42.7-50.5 and 71.3-76.8%, respectively. Polyphenols present in GNC and SBC were cholorogenic acid, syringic acid and p-coumaric acid. The number of bands separated in soybean meal was greater than the bands observed in GNC flour as seen in SDS-PAGE pattern, respectively. SEM of groundnut flour showed distension of protein bodies due to roasting of the oil cakes. The water absorption of wheat flour GNC blends decreased from 59.2 to 57.3% and increased in wheat flour SBC blends from 59.2 to 68.3% with an increase in oil cake from 0 to 20%. With increase in either GNC or SBC, the biscuits became harder. Addition of glycerol monostearate and sodium stearoyl lactylate in combination with 20% blend of GNC/SBC decreased the breaking strength values and increased the sensory parameters of the biscuits. Nutritionally rich biscuits were thus prepared by incorporating GNC/SBC.

Concepts: Protein, Nutrition, Water, Wheat, Bread, Flour, Cake, Sodium stearoyl lactylate

27

Higher intake of lignans, diphenolic plant compounds, may reduce the risk of certain types of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. We assessed the dietary intake of four lignans: matairesinol, secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol and pinoresinol. Furthermore, for the breads we supplemented the data with two more lignans: syringaresinol and medioresinol. Study subjects were 172 men and 97 women aged 40-75 years, residing in Riga, the capital of Latvia, all living at home, eating habitual food. Median total lignan intake was 2259 (range 1169-5759) μg/day. Secoisolariciresinol contributed 58% and syringaresinol 22% of lignan intake. Bread was the major food source of lignans in men (86%), whereas in women it was bread (57%) and flaxseed (35%).

Concepts: Food, Estonia, Bread, Lignan, Latvia, Baltic states, Lignans, Riga

26

Abstract Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel is rich source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, hence could be used in the development of functional food formulations. Attempt was made to see the effect of dried pomegranate peel powder (DPPP) and emulsifiers on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of biscuits. Incorporation of DPPP from 0 to 10% increased farinograph water absorption, decreased dough stability, increased amylograph pasting temperature and peak viscosity of wheat flour; increased hardness and decreased cohesiveness of biscuit dough; decreased spread ratio and increased breaking strength of biscuits. Sensory evaluation showed that biscuits incorporated with 7.5% DPPP were acceptable. Among emulsifiers, sodium stearoyl lactylate significantly improved the quality characteristics of 7.5% DPPP incorporated biscuits. Addition of 7.5% DPPP increased the protein, dietary fibre, minerals, anti-oxidant activity and β-carotene contents of biscuits. The studies indicated the possibility of utilizing DPPP to improve the nutritional characteristics of biscuits.

Concepts: Protein, Nutrition, Fiber, Dietary fiber, Flour, Pomegranate, Lythraceae, Sodium stearoyl lactylate