SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: International forum of allergy & rhinology

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BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated the bitter taste receptor T2R38 upregulates sinonasal mucosal innate defense in response to gram-negative quorum-sensing molecules through increased nitric oxide production and mucociliary clearance. T2R38 was initially identified in the quest to understand the variability in bitter taste perception to the compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and demonstrated to have polymorphisms generating diplotypes dividing people into PTC supertasters, heterozygotes (with variable PTC detection), and nontasters. We have further demonstrated that sinonasal epithelial cultures derived from supertasters significantly increase innate defenses in response to gram-negative quorum-sensing molecules compared with sinonasal cultures derived from heterozygotes and nontaster individuals. Based on this data, we hypothesize that supertasters are less likely to require sinus surgery compared with heterozygous or nontasters and that supertasters have improved surgical outcomes. METHODS: Banked sinonasal tissue samples from patients who had undergone primary functional endoscopic sinus surgery at the University of Pennsylvania or the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center were genotyped for T2R38 and compared to the expected population distribution. Necessity for additional antibiotic therapy following the postoperative healing time frame was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 28 patients were included in the study. Only 1 supertaster was identified (expected 5.6, p < 0.043). Additionally, 14 heterozygous and 13 nontaster patients were identified. CONCLUSION: This pilot study investigating the genetics of the bitter taste receptor T2R38 in the context of primary sinonasal surgery demonstrates supertaster patients are less likely to need surgical intervention for chronic rhinosinusitis. Additional study is necessary to ascertain postsurgical outcomes.

Concepts: Surgery, Sinusitis, Taste, Nitric oxide, Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Supertaster, Phenylthiocarbamide, TAS2R38

28

Postoperative hyposmia and anosmia is an often overlooked complication of endoscopic pituitary surgery. Septal flaps have been utilized as a strategy for repairing and preventing postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. The olfactory impact of raising this flap for sellar reconstruction and CSF repair needs qualitative assessment. This study aims to ascertain the effect of the Hadad-Bassagasteguy (HB) flap on olfaction in endoscopic pituitary surgery.

Concepts: Olfaction, Anosmia, Hyposmia

27

The relationship between allergy and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) remains ill-defined and controversial. The association between the 2 is unclear, making an evidence-based decision of whether to evaluate and treat allergies in CRS patients difficult. The purposes of this systematic review are to (1) examine the relationship between allergy and CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), (2) examine the same for allergy and CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), and (3) recommend evaluation and treatment based on the evidence.

Concepts: Asthma, Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Sinusitis, Allergy, Rhinorrhea

27

Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) has been shown in some studies to impact visual field, blood loss, and cardiovascular parameters during endoscopic sinus surgery when compared to inhalational anesthesia (IA). These variables are critical in endoscopic sinus surgery. A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to discern the impact of TIVA vs IA in endoscopic sinus surgery.

Concepts: Blood, Heart, Anesthesia, Atrium

27

BACKGROUND: Epithelial permeability is highly dependent upon the integrity of tight junctions, which are cell-cell adhesion complexes located at the apical aspect of the lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. We hypothesize that sinonasal epithelial exposure to Der p 1 house dust mite antigen decreases expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs), representing a potential mechanism for increased permeability and presentation of antigens across the sinonasal epithelial layer. METHODS: Confluent cultured primary human sinonasal epithelial cells were exposed to recombinant Der p 1 antigen vs control, and transepithelial resistance measurements were performed over 24 hours. Antibody staining for a panel of TJPs was examined with immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy and Western blotting. Tissue for these experiments was obtained from 4 patients total. RESULTS: Der p 1 exposed sinonasal cells showed a marked decrease in transepithelial resistance when compared to control cells. In addition, results of Western immunoblot and immunofluorescent labeling demonstrated decreased expression of TJPs claudin-1 and junction adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) in Der p 1-exposed cultured sinonasal cells vs controls. CONCLUSION: Der p 1 antigen exposure decreases sinonasal epithelium TJP expression, most notably seen in JAM-A and claudin-1 in these preliminary experiments. This decreased TJP expression likely contributes to increased epithelial permeability and represents a potential mechanism for transepithelial antigen exposure in allergic rhinitis.

Concepts: Antibody, Protein, Asthma, Epithelium, Endothelium, Skin, House dust mite, Tight junction

27

BACKGROUND: The advent of endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation (ESPAL) for the control of posterior epistaxis provides an effective, low-morbidity treatment option. In the current practice algorithm, ESPAL is pursued after failure of posterior packing. Given the morbidity and limited effectiveness of posterior packing, we sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of first-line ESPAL compared to the current practice model. METHODS: A standard decision analysis model was constructed comparing first-line ESPAL and current practice algorithms. A literature search was performed to determine event probabilities and published Medicare data largely provided cost parameters. The primary outcomes were cost of treatment and resolution of epistaxis. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed for key parameters. RESULTS: Costs for the first-line ESPAL arm and the current practice arm were $6450 and $8246, respectively. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed for key variables including duration of packing. The baseline difference of $1796 in favor of the first-line ESPAL arm was increased to $6263 when the duration of nasal packing was increased from 3 to 5 days. Current practice was favored (cost savings of $437 per patient) if posterior packing duration was decreased from 3 to 2 days. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that ESPAL is cost-saving as first-line therapy for posterior epistaxis. Given the improved effectiveness and patient comfort of ESPAL compared to posterior packing, ESPAL should be offered as an initial treatment option for medically stable patients with posterior epistaxis.

Concepts: Costs, Decision theory, Sensitivity analysis, Sphenopalatine artery, Decision analysis, Info-gap decision theory, Epistaxis, Kiesselbach's plexus

26

Olfactory dysfunction is common among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and has a negative impact upon quality of life. Olfactory dysfunction can be both subjective and objective and appears to be more predominant in patients with concomitant nasal polyposis. The efficacy of medical interventions on olfaction among patients with CRS with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) is not well known. Our aim was to perform a systematic review with meta-analysis of the efficacy of medical therapies on objective and subjective hyposmia among patients with CRSwNP.

Concepts: Medicine, Systematic review, Therapy, Olfactory bulb, Olfaction, Olfactory nerve, Anosmia, Hyposmia

26

The use of nasal irrigation in the management of postoperative endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) patients is commonplace; however, the potential contamination of these bottles is concerning. The Sinugator® cordless pulsating nasal wash (NeilMed Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA) is a battery-operated, positive pressure, pulsatile pump with a unidirectional flow. The principal aim of this study was to determine the incidence of cross-contamination using the pulsating nasal irrigation device and compare it with the traditional squeeze bottle.

Concepts: Medicine, Mucus, Bottle, Bottles, Hygiene, Nasal cavity, Nasal irrigation, Rhinology

26

Potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser photocoagulation is commonly used for treatment of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia-related epistaxis (HHT-RE). Electrosurgical plasma coagulation (EPC), also known as coblation, has not been rigorously evaluated for HHT-RE.

Concepts: Blood, Laser photocoagulation

26

Treatment options for chronic rhinosinusitis with recurrent polyposis (CRSwNP) after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) are limited, and include frequent use of systemic steroids and revision surgery. A bioabsorbable, steroid-eluting implant was studied for its ability to dilate sinuses obstructed by polyps and provide localized, controlled steroid delivery to reestablish sinus patency. This study assessed the initial feasibility, safety, and efficacy of steroid-eluting implants placed in the office setting in patients who were candidates for revision ESS.

Concepts: Sinusitis