SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Injury

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Acute bone flap infection is a devastating complication after cranioplasty for postinjury decompressive craniectomy. We aim to identify the risk factors of autologous bone flap infection.

Concepts: Craniotomy, Decompressive craniectomy

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Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM(®)) relies on citrated blood samples, which are regarded as biologically stable for up to 4h after venepuncture. However, this recommendation is based on data from normal volunteers. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible temporal changes in the coagulability of blood samples from coagulopathic trauma patients.

Concepts: Venipuncture

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BACKGROUND: Intramedullary nailing is commonly recommended as the treatment of choice for transverse/reverse oblique trochanteric (AO/OTA type A3=intertrochanteric) and subtrochanteric fractures. However, only to a limited extent is this approach supported by superior results in well designed clinical trials, and the sliding hip screw (SHS) is still a frequently used implant for these fractures. The aim of the present study was to compare IM nails and SHS in the treatment of transverse/reverse oblique trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures using data from the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register (NHFR). METHODS: Data on 2716 operations for acute transverse/reverse oblique trochanteric or subtrochanteric fractures were collected from the NHFR from 2005 to 2010. Surgeons reported patient characteristics and details from initial surgery and reoperations, and patients answered questionnaires about pain, satisfaction, and quality of life (EQ-5D) 4, 12, and 36 months postoperatively. Reoperation rates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analyses. Primary outcome measures were pain (Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)), satisfaction (VAS), quality of life (EQ-5D), and reoperation rates at one year. RESULTS: The treatment groups were similar regarding age, gender, ASA-class, cognitive impairment, and preoperative EQ-5Dindex score. At one year reoperation rates were 6.4% and 3.8% for SHS and IM nails, respectively (p=0.011). Patients treated with SHS also had slightly more pain (VAS 30 vs. 27, p=0.037) and were less satisfied (VAS 31 vs. 36, p=0.003) compared to patients treated with IM nail. There was no statistically significant difference in the EQ-5Dindex score, but the mobility was significantly better for the IM nail group. CONCLUSION: 12 months postoperatively patients with transverse/reverse oblique trochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures operated with a SHS had a higher reoperation rate compared to those operated with an IM nail. Small differences regarding pain, satisfaction, quality of life, and mobility were also in favour of IM nailing. Consequently, a change in our treatment strategy for these fractures could be considered.

Concepts: Quality, Nail, Fracture, Osteoporosis, Bone, Hip fracture, Bone fracture, Statistical significance

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OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the effect of obesity on injury severity score (ISS), mortality and course of hospital stay among trauma patients. METHOD: A systematic review of the literature was conducted by Internet search. Data were extracted from included studies and analysed using a random-effects model to compare outcomes in the obese (body mass index (BMI)≥30kgm(-2)) with the non-obese (BMI<30kgm(-2)) group. RESULT: Eventually, 18 studies met our inclusion criteria with 7751 obese patients representing 17% of the pooled study population. The data revealed that obesity was associated with increased risk of mortality, longer stay in the intensive care unit and higher rates of complication. Additionally, obese patients seemed to have longer duration of mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay but it did not reach statistical significance. No difference was observed in ISS between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Evidence strongly supports the correlation of obesity with worse prognosis in trauma patients and further studies should target this kind of population for therapy and prevention.

Concepts: Injury Severity Score, Body shape, Statistical significance, Meta-analysis, Statistics, Obesity, Effect size, Body mass index

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We evaluated both the outcome of using a locking plate as a definitive external fixator for treating open tibial fractures and, using finite element analysis, the biomechanical performance of external and internal metaphyseal locked plates in treating proximal tibial fractures. Eight open tibial patients were treated using a metaphyseal locked plate as a low-profile definitive external fixator. Then, finite element models of internal (IPF) as well as two different external plate fixations (EPFs) for proximal tibial fractures were reconstructed. The offset distances from the bone surface to the EPFs were 6cm and 10cm. Both axial stiffness and angular stiffness were calculated to evaluate the biomechanical performance of these three models. The mean follow-up period was 31 months (range, 18-43 months). All the fractures united and the mean bone healing time was 37.5 weeks (range, 20-52 weeks). All patients had excellent or good functional results and were walking freely at the final follow-up. The finite element finding revealed that axial stiffness and angular stiffness decreased as the offset distance from the bone surface increased. Compared to the IPF models, in the two EPF models, axial stiffness decreased by 84-94%, whereas the angular stiffness decreased by 12-21%. The locking plate used as a definitive external fixator provided a high rate of union. While the locking plate is not totally rigid, it is clinically stable and may be advisable for stiffness reduction of plating constructs, thus promoting fracture healing by callus formation. Our patients experienced a comfortable clinical course, excellent knee and ankle joint motion, satisfactory functional results and an acceptable complication rate.

Concepts: Periosteum, Direct stiffness method, Fracture, Finite element method in structural mechanics, Finite element method, Bone healing, Bone, Bone fracture

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INTRODUCTION: Following an increase in the incidence of scapular fractures and interest in the outcome of their treatment, a basic classification system was developed for ease of use in the emergency setting. It has been expanded to a comprehensive system to allow for more in-depth classification of scapular fractures for clinical research and surgical decision making. It focusses on three specific regions of the scapula: the scapular body, the glenoid fossa and the lateral scapular suspension system (LSSS). This article presents a classification of the LSSS involvement to better characterise the injuries of this region and to emphasise its relevance to evaluation of the position of the scapula, hence the glenoid fossa, and so the centre of rotation of the shoulder joint. METHODS: An iterative consensus and evaluation process comprising an international group of seven experienced shoulder specialist and orthopaedic trauma surgeons was used to specify and evaluate the failure of the LSSS associated with scapula fractures. This was supported by a series of agreement studies. The system considered lack of involvement (S0), incomplete (S1) and complete (S2) failure of the LSSS. The last evaluation was conducted on a consecutive collection of 120 scapula fractures documented by three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) reconstruction videos. RESULTS: Surgeons agreed on the involvement/failure of the LSSS in 47% of the 120 cases with an overall Kappa of 0.54. The sample most likely included 70 S0, 29 S1 and 21 S2 cases, where surgeons showed median classification accuracies of 93%, 71% and 80% for these categories, respectively. While two surgeons showed some uncertainty about their classification, the remaining surgeons only failed to identify LSSS failure in <20% of the cases. Kappa coefficients of reliability for classification of incomplete and complete LSSS involvement according to subcategories were 0.85 and 0.82, respectively. CONCLUSION: While LSSS involvement can be reliably identified, its characterisation regarding complexity is problematic even with 3D CT images. The proposed LSSS system is considered clinically relevant and sufficient to further assess its role in treatment-decision processes and outcome prognosis.

Concepts: Reliability engineering, Failure, Acromion, Glenoid cavity, Shoulder, Scapula

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PURPOSE: The management of hemodynamically unstable patients with severe pelvic fractures remains a challenge. Various treatment strategies have been advocated. This study analyzed the value of transcatheter angiographic embolization (TAE) for persistent haemodynamic instability after initial fracture stabilization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2002 to July 2011, 803 patients were identified with pelvic fractures, 295 of them (37%) were presenting with unstable pelvic fractures. Fifteen patients, all with unstable fractures (2%), remained hypotensive (systolic blood pressure<90mmHg) despite adequate fluid resuscitation and emergent surgical fracture stabilization, subsequently underwent TAE. RESULTS: The median age in the TAE-group was 57.9 years±20.12 (min 22; max 82) and the median ISS (injury severity score) was 35.8±11.7 (min 22; max 66). 13 out of 15 patients (87%) received initial external fixation and 2 patients (13%) where treated with a C-Clamp before TAE. Radiological success, defined as absence of contrast extravasation on completion angiography, was observed in all 15 patients. In total 3 (20%) patients died during the period of hospitalization, none of them owing to persistent or recurrent pelvic haemorrhage. In the remaining 12 patients, no early or late complications of TAE were identified. Preperitoneal pelvic packing was performed in two patients, both had open pelvic fractures. CONCLUSION: TAE is a safe and very efficient procedure to treat persistent haemorrhage in patients with unstable pelvic fractures initially treated by surgical fracture stabilization procedures. On the long term, no early or late bleeding recurrence could be demonstrated with an overall survival rate of 80%. Preperitoneal pelvic packing can be reserved for patients with open fractures and active bleeding.

Concepts: Surgery, Bleeding, Hospital, Blood, Radiology, Pelvic fracture, Injury Severity Score, Bone fracture

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INTRODUCTION: Numerous static and dynamic techniques have been described for the management of acute acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation. To date, no standard technique has been established and several complications have been described for each of these techniques. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the functional and radiographic outcomes of acute AC joint reconstruction after a mini-open technique using the double-button fixation system. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with acute AC joint dislocation treated with the double-button fixation system by one surgeon were retrospectively reviewed. Functional assessment was performed by an independent reviewer using the DASH, Constant and the VAS scores. The coracoclavicular (CC) distance of the affected shoulder was assessed on a standard radiograph and compared with the contralateral normal one. RESULTS: Eight patients were operated on for grade III AC joint dislocation and 4 for grade IV. The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 27.5 years. The mean follow-up was 18.25 months (range: 12-30 months). At the most recent follow-up, the mean Constant score was 94.8 (range: 84-100) showing a significant increase compared with the mean pre-operative value of 34.4 (range: 25-52) (p<0.001). The mean DASH score was significantly decreased from 19.6 (range: 14-28) preoperatively to 0.25 (range: 0-3) at the last follow-up (p<0.001). The mean VAS score showed a significant decrease from 5.75 (range: 4-7) to 0.2 (range: 0-2) (p<0.001). The mean CC distance on the operated shoulder was found to have no significant difference from the CC distance on the contralateral normal side (10.5 vs. 10mm) (p>0.05). There was no evidence of AC joint osteoarthrosis, CC calcification or osteolysis of the distal clavicle or the coracoid process. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed mini-open technique provides adequate exposure of the base of the coracoid with minimal damage to the soft tissues surrounding the CC ligaments while ensures an excellent cosmetic result. We recommend this fast and relatively simple technique for all type IV injuries and for type III injuries in heavy manual workers and high-demand upper extremities athletes.

Concepts: Acromioclavicular ligament, Upper limb anatomy, Acromioclavicular joint, Shoulder, Synovial joint, Joints, Acromion, Clavicle

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INTRODUCTION: Acute work-related trauma is a leading cause of death and disability among U.S. workers. Occupational health services researchers have described the pressing need to identify valid injury severity measures for purposes such as case-mix adjustment and the construction of appropriate comparison groups in programme evaluation, intervention, quality improvement, and outcome studies. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of several injury severity scores and scoring methods in the context of predicting work-related disability and medical cost outcomes. METHODS: Washington State Trauma Registry (WTR) records for injuries treated from 1998 to 2008 were linked with workers' compensation claims. Several Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS)-based injury severity measures (ISS, New ISS, maximum AIS) were estimated directly from ICD-9-CM codes using two software packages: (1) ICDMAP-90, and (2) Stata’s user-written ICDPIC programme (ICDPIC). ICDMAP-90 and ICDPIC scores were compared with existing WTR scores using the Akaike Information Criterion, amount of variance explained, and estimated effects on outcomes. Competing risks survival analysis was used to evaluate work disability outcomes. Adjusted total medical costs were modelled using linear regression. RESULTS: The linked sample contained 6052 work-related injury events. There was substantial agreement between WTR scores and those estimated by ICDMAP-90 (kappa=0.73), and between WTR scores and those estimated by ICDPIC (kappa=0.68). Work disability and medical costs increased monotonically with injury severity, and injury severity was a significant predictor of work disability and medical cost outcomes in all models. WTR and ICDMAP-90 scores performed better with regard to predicting outcomes than did ICDPIC scores, but effect estimates were similar. Of the three severity measures, maxAIS was usually weakest, except when predicting total permanent disability. CONCLUSIONS: Injury severity was significantly associated with work disability and medical cost outcomes for work-related injuries. Injury severity can be estimated using either ICDMAP-90 or ICDPIC when ICD-9-CM codes are available. We observed little practical difference between severity measures or scoring methods. This study demonstrated that using existing software to estimate injury severity may be useful to enhance occupational injury surveillance and research.

Concepts: Statistics, Injury, Injuries, Physical trauma, Regression analysis, Insurance, Akaike information criterion, Injury Severity Score

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INTRODUCTION: Mallet finger, well-known also as drop finger or baseball finger, is a frequent deformity after extensor tendons injury in the fingers. Although numerous nonoperative or operative techniques have been used in managing this deformity, the treatment still remains a debated subject. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Starting from 1996, 121 fingers in 118 patients with neglected deformity or unsuccessful splinting older than 10 days underwent surgical treatment. In 101 patients a tendinous mallet finger was present, and in 20 patients a bony mallet finger. After immobilising the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint at 0° extension with a Kirschner wire, the extensor tendon was repaired by using a dorsal deepithelialised skin flap reinserted transosseous. The DIP joint was immobilised for 6 weeks in a thermoplastic splint, and after that it was gradually weaned from the immobilisation. An overnight splint was used for 4-6 weeks after starting the mobilisation. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 10 months (range: 3-120 months). An excellent result in 89 fingers and a good result in 32 fingers were obtained, according to Crawford’s evaluation criteria. CONCLUSION: This method seems to be a new reliable alternative in the treatment of chronic mallet finger.

Concepts: Kirschner wire, Finger, Extension, Tendon, Splint, Ligament, Orthopedic surgery, Knee