SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Injury epidemiology

22

Research has documented sharp and short-lived increases in firearm acquisitions immediately following high-profile mass shootings and specific elections, increasing exposure to firearms at the community level. We exploit cross-city variation in the estimated number of excess handgun acquisitions in California following the 2012 presidential election and the Sandy Hook school shooting 5 weeks later to assess whether the additional handguns were associated with increases in the rate of firearm-related harms at the city level.

16

Current research regarding injuries caused during interactions between police officers and civilians is conducted intermittently or on a very narrow sample frame which provides very little clinical information about the injuries suffered or the adverse outcomes. The aim of this study is to identify comorbid risk factors and describe acute outcomes of medically treated traumatic injuries occurring as a result of contact with law enforcement personnel.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Medicine, Causality, Avicenna, Law, Injury, Police

13

Experiences in adolescence may have a lasting impact on adulthood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between adolescent (12-18 years of age) volunteerism with the incidence of illegal behaviors, arrests, and convictions in adulthood (>18 years of age).

Concepts: Epidemiology, The Association, Adolescence, Crime, Criminal law, Civil society, Volunteering, Young adult

12

Managing injury risk is important for maximising athlete availability and performance. Although athletes are inherently predisposed to musculoskeletal injuries by participating in sports, etiology models have illustrated how susceptibility is influenced by repeat interactions between the athlete (i.e. intrinsic factors) and environmental stimuli (i.e. extrinsic factors). Such models also reveal that the likelihood of an injury emerging across time is related to the interconnectedness of multiple factors cumulating in a pattern of either positive (i.e. increased fitness) or negative adaptation (i.e. injury).The process of repeatedly exposing athletes to workloads in order to promote positive adaptations whilst minimising injury risk can be difficult to manage. Etiology models have highlighted that preventing injuries in sport, as opposed to reducing injury risk, is likely impossible given our inability to appreciate the interactions of the factors at play. Given these uncertainties, practitioners need to be able to design, deliver, and monitor risk management strategies that ensure a low susceptibility to injury is maintained during pursuits to enhance performance. The current article discusses previous etiology and injury prevention models before proposing a new operational framework.

Concepts: Natural selection, Management, Risk management, Motivation, Uncertainty, Accident, Operational risk, Philosophical terminology

10

The mass shooting phenomenon has gained much attention lately as this form of gun violence appears to increase in frequency. Although many organizations collect information on mass shootings (fatal and nonfatal injuries), no federal definition of this phrase exists. The purpose of this study was to highlight the different statistics that result among databases that define and track “mass shootings.” Establishing definitive guidelines for a mass shooting definition could improve research credibility when presenting evidence to policy makers.

8

As a consequence of severe knee injuries, knee osteoarthritis (OA) seems prevalent in retired professional footballers. However, some epidemiological data remain missing, for instance whether knee OA is also prevalent in current professional footballers, whether knee OA is associated with knee injuries and surgeries, and whether knee OA leads to a lower level of functioning. Therefore, three research questions were answered: (i) what is the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) among current and retired professional footballers? (ii) is severe knee injury or knee surgery associated with knee OA among current and retired professional footballers? (iii) what are the consequences of knee OA on physical knee function among current and retired professional footballers?

8

Currently, an estimated 7.9 million US adults use electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Although published reports have identified fires and explosions related to use of ENDS since 2009, these reports do not provide national estimates of burn injuries associated with ENDS batteries in the US.

Concepts: Electricity, Injuries, Burn, Oregon

8

Falls are a common and debilitating health problem for older adults. Older adults are often treated and discharged home by emergency department (ED)-based providers with the hope they will receive falls prevention resources and referrals from their primary care provider. This descriptive study investigated falls prevention activities, including interactions with primary care providers, among community-dwelling older adults who were discharged home after presenting to an ED with a fall-related injury.

Concepts: Health care, Geriatrics, Autumn, Adult, Emergency department, Primary care physician

7

Driving under the influence of marijuana is a serious traffic safety concern in the United States. Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active compound in marijuana. Although blood THC testing is a more accurate measure of THC-induced impairment, measuring THC in oral fluid is a less intrusive and less costly method of testing.

Concepts: United States, Measurement, Psychometrics, Tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabis, Hashish, Raphael Mechoulam

6

The reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has increased markedly in the past two decades. Recent research indicates that children with ASD are at a substantially increased risk of injury mortality, particularly from unintentional drowning. The purpose of this study was to explore the circumstances of fatal unintentional drowning incidents involving children with ASD under 15 years of age.

Concepts: Death, Medical statistics, Autism, Pervasive developmental disorder, Asperger syndrome, Autism spectrum, PDD-NOS, Drowning