SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Inflammatory bowel diseases

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: Natalizumab is an efficacious agent for the induction and maintenance of remission in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) who have failed anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of natalizumab outside of clinical trial at a US tertiary center.

Concepts: Inflammation, Biopsy, Effectiveness, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Colonoscopy, Gastroenterology, Inflammatory bowel disease

28

ABSTRACT:: The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is multifactorial and results from an interaction between genetic, immunologic, microbial, and environmental factors. Certain drugs could act as a trigger for the disease and have been implicated in the development of new onset IBD in a number a studies. These relationships are based on case reports and cohort studies, as proving this in the context of randomized controlled trials would be difficult. Drugs that have been linked to causing or worsening IBD include isotretinoin, antibiotics, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, oral contraceptives, mycophenolate mofetil, etanercept, ipilimumab, and rituximab. Bowel preparation for colonoscopy has also been associated with aphthoid lesions that may be confused with IBD. However, given the source of these reports we have to be cautious in the interpretation of the data before concluding that these drugs trigger IBD and what is being observed is not related to other confounding factors. Different pathogenic mechanisms have been suggested for the different drugs listed above. In order to clarify the confusion a comprehensive literature review was performed with the goal of advancing the knowledge on this subject.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Pharmacology, Epidemiology, Bacteria, Rheumatoid arthritis, Ulcerative colitis, Inflammatory bowel disease

28

: Several polymorphisms have been identified in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, while their roles in the incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are conflicting. This meta-analysis was designed to clarify the impact of these polymorphisms on UC and CD risk.

Concepts: Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Colon, Colitis, Infliximab, Abdominal pain, Colonoscopy, Gastroenterology

28

Not all patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) respond or maintain response to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents and alternative treatment is necessary. Natalizumab, a monoclonal antibody to alpha-4 integrin approved for CD, has demonstrated efficacy in randomized clinical trials. We describe our experience with natalizumab in clinical practice at Mayo Clinic Rochester.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Randomized controlled trial, Crohn's disease, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Natalizumab

28

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is strongly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to assess the IBD phenotype associated with PSC in a large well-phenotyped population-based PSC cohort using endoscopic and histopathologic criteria.

Concepts: Inflammation, Ulcerative colitis, Colonoscopy, Gastroenterology, Inflammatory bowel disease, Autoimmune diseases, Primary sclerosing cholangitis

27

Exclusive enteral nutrition is effective for inducing remission in active pediatric Crohn’s disease. Partial enteral nutrition (PEN) with free diet is ineffective for inducing remission, suggesting that the mechanism depends on exclusion of free diet. We developed an alternative diet based on PEN with exclusion of dietary components hypothesized to affect the microbiome or intestinal permeability.

Concepts: Protein, Nutrition, Death, Fat, Ulcerative colitis, Gastroenterology, Diet, Malabsorption

27

Mesalamine, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is a potent antioxidant and is known to enhance peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activity in the intestine. Our previous studies suggested reduced Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K)/β-catenin signaling as a mechanism for 5-ASA chemoprevention in chronic ulcerative colitis (CUC). We now hypothesize that 5-ASA mediates changes in intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) reactive oxygen species during colitis to affect phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), PI3K, and β-catenin signaling.

Concepts: Protein, Bacteria, Mitochondrion, Antioxidant, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Gastroenterology, Mesalazine

27

We systematically reviewed and compared the efficacy and safety of oral mesalamine formulations (sustained release, delayed release, and prodrugs) used for induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis. The main objective of this review was to determine if there are any differences in efficacy or safety among the oral 5-ASA drugs.

Concepts: Pharmacology, 2002 albums, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Review, Debut albums, Mesalazine, Sulfasalazine

27

Identifying clinical scenarios that maximize the cost-effectiveness of biological treatments can lead to optimized health care cost-saving and clinical effectiveness from a society’s perspective.

Concepts: Health care, Health economics, Medicine, Public health, Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Economics, Pharmacoeconomics

27

: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is frequently detected in ulcerative colitis (UC) lesions of steroid-refractory patients. This has led to the suspicion that CMV might cause colitis and steroid refractoriness.

Concepts: Ulcerative colitis, Colitis, Cytomegalovirus