SciCombinator

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Journal: Inflammation research : official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.]

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Mastitis is defined as inflammation of the mammary gland in domestic dairy animals and humans. Salidroside, a major component isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., has potent anti-inflammatory properties, but whether it can be used in mastitis treatment has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of salidroside against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in mice and the mechanism of action.

Concepts: Inflammation, Signal transduction, Mammal, Anti-inflammatory, Rhodiola rosea, Rhodiola

28

This study compares the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 4 (TNFSF4) and TNF-R-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) mRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) against healthy controls. The association of SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) and clinical features of SLE with altered expression levels of TNFSF4 and TRAF2 mRNAs were also evaluated.

Concepts: Cell nucleus, Rheumatology, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Lupus erythematosus, Glomerulonephritis, Lupus nephritis, Cyclophosphamide, Antiphospholipid syndrome

15

Inflammation is believed to be a contributing factor to many chronic diseases. The influence of vitamin D deficiency on inflammation is being explored but studies have not demonstrated a causative effect.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Asthma

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Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in epithelial mitochondria results in decreased epithelial barrier function as characterized by increased internalization of non-invasive Escherichia coli and their translocation across the epithelium. We hypothesized that the increased burden of intracellular commensal bacteria would activate the enterocyte, with the potential to promote inflammation. Treatment of human colon-derived epithelial cell lines in vitro with dinitrophenol (DNP) and commensal E. coli (strains F18, HB101) provoked increased production of interleukin (IL-8), which was not observed with conditioned medium from the bacteria, lipopolysaccharide or inert beads. The IL-8 response was inhibited by co-treatment with cytochalasin-D (blocks F-actin rearrangement), chloroquine (blocks phagosome acidification) and a MyD88 inhibitor (blocks TLR signaling), consistent with TLR-signaling mediating IL-8 synthesis subsequent to bacterial internalization. Use of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, mitoTEMPO, or U0126 to block ERK1/2 MAPK signalling inhibited DNP+E. coli-evoked IL-8 production. Mutations in the NOD2 (the intracellular sensor of bacteria) or ATG16L1 (autophagy protein) genes are susceptibility traits for Crohn’s, and epithelia lacking either protein displayed enhanced IL-8 production in comparison to wild-type cells when exposed to DNP + E coli. Thus, metabolic stress perturbs the normal epithelial-bacterial interaction resulting in increased IL-8 production due to uptake of bacteria into the enterocyte: this potentially pro-inflammatory event is enhanced in cells lacking NOD2 or ATG16L1 that favor increased survival of bacteria within the enterocyte. We speculate that by increasing epithelial permeability and IL-8 production, reduced mitochondria function in the enteric epithelium would contribute to the initiation, pathophysiology, and reactivation of inflammatory disease in the gut.

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The aim of this study was to determine whether leptin, a member of the adipocytokines involved in immune and inflammatory response regulation, may influence some aspects of mast cell biology.

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The study aimed to investigate the effects of DNA repair proteins on cell apoptosis in human DPSCs during inflammation.

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A significant effort has been made to understand the intestinal barrier, but the effective means to prevent, reduce, and restore intestinal mucosal damage remains unclear. Recently, a few of studies have explained the mechanism of the intestinal barrier in long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). This review aims to summarize recent views on the function of lncRNAs in the intestinal barrier and discuss the emerging role of lncRNAs in intestinal barrier diseases caused by inflammatory diseases.

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The aim of this study is to investigate the involvement of TLR9 in the regulation of iNOS expression and nitric oxide (NO) production in Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-treated mouse macrophages.

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of mast cells (MCs) in allograft rejection, eventually inhibited by IL-37. Immune cells including MCs participate in allograft rejection by generating IL-1, IL-33, TNF and other cytokines.

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Exposure to air particulate matter (PM) is associated with chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Macrophages are responsible for the regulation of chronic inflammation. However, whether PM affects macrophage polarization remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether nontoxic concentrations of urban PM are able to prime macrophages to altered inflammatory response upon LPS challenge.