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Journal: Inflammation research : official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.]


Mastitis is defined as inflammation of the mammary gland in domestic dairy animals and humans. Salidroside, a major component isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., has potent anti-inflammatory properties, but whether it can be used in mastitis treatment has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of salidroside against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in mice and the mechanism of action.

Concepts: Rhodiola, Mammal, Signal transduction, Anti-inflammatory, Inflammation, Rhodiola rosea


This study compares the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 4 (TNFSF4) and TNF-R-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) mRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) against healthy controls. The association of SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) and clinical features of SLE with altered expression levels of TNFSF4 and TRAF2 mRNAs were also evaluated.

Concepts: Cyclophosphamide, Lupus erythematosus, Cell nucleus, Glomerulonephritis, Rheumatology, Lupus nephritis, Antiphospholipid syndrome, Systemic lupus erythematosus


Inflammation is believed to be a contributing factor to many chronic diseases. The influence of vitamin D deficiency on inflammation is being explored but studies have not demonstrated a causative effect.

Concepts: Asthma, Vitamin D


To characterize the impact of inflammatory process and oxidative stress in the degree of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a common condition in which chronic inflammation plays a crucial role, we investigated the effect of different plant extract preparations in an in vivo model of BPH as new therapeutic target.

Concepts: Inflammation, Benign prostatic hyperplasia


The efficacy of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-1 (TREM-1) in detecting sepsis in adults has already been proven. To date, however, consensus in the field of neonatal sepsis is lacking. The purpose of the present systematic review is to accumulate current evidence in this field.

Concepts: Time, Sepsis, Present, Randomized controlled trial, Meta-analysis, Future, Systematic review, Evidence-based medicine


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a significant role based on innate immune mechanism during viral infection. TLR signaling mechanism designates to protect the cells from invading viruses. The expression of TLRs during dengue virus (DENV) infection not yet well explained. This study evaluates the TLR gene expression from DENV-infected patient’s cornea.

Concepts: Gene expression, Gene, Polymerase chain reaction, Organism, Immune system, Innate immune system, Bacteria, DNA


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic and progressive lung disease characterized by a mixture of small airway disease and lung tissue parenchymal destruction. Abnormal inflammatory responses to cigarette smoking and other noxious particles are generally thought to be responsible for causing of COPD. Since airway inflammation is a key factor in COPD progress, it is crucial to unravel its underlying molecular mechanisms. Unbiased analysis of genome-wide gene expression profiles in lung small airway epithelial cells provides a powerful tool to investigate this.

Concepts: DNA, Tobacco smoking, Cancer, Smoking, Pneumonia, Asthma, Lung, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


Sepsis remains a major clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Interleukin (IL)-33 is a recently described member of the IL-1 family that is widely expressed and functions as a new inflammatory mediator. IL-33 has been reported to protect sepsis, but the underlying mechanisms are not well-elucidated.

Concepts: Inflammation


The pathophysiology of psoriasis is very complex and involves an interplay between immune cells and keratinocytes. The keratinocyte production of calprotectin (S100A8/A9), induced by the inflammatory psoriatic milieu, may be involved in initiating immune cell invasion, as well as in propagating inflammation. However, the exact role of calprotectin in psoriasis remains unclear. Therapeutic approaches utilizing adalimumab, etanercept and ustekinumab are widely used in psoriatic treatment, but their anti-inflammatory mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate, by immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of the heterocomplex S100A8/A9 in lesional skin from psoriatic patients undergoing biological therapy with adalimumab, etanercept or ustekinumab. Our results showed that S100A8/A9, absent or present at very low level in skin biopsies from healthy subjects, is dramatically upregulated in each epidermal layer from psoriatic patients. Interestingly, calprotectin was mainly localized in keratinocyte nuclei from psoriatic patients, suggesting a role of S100A8/A9 in keratinocyte nuclear function. Furthermore, we have shown that the biological treatment induced a drastic reduction of S100A8/A9 expression in skin biopsies from treated patients, correlating with PASI reduction. Our results suggest that calprotectin may play a crucial role as a significant marker of inflammation in psoriasis, and that its reduction of expression may be considered a favourable prognostic marker in psoriasis.

Concepts: Adalimumab, DNA, Psoriatic arthritis, Immune system, Inflammation, Antibody, Infliximab, Psoriasis


Histamine is an important mediator of biological functions and present in high amounts in inflammatory skin lesions which are characterised by a marked infiltration of myeloid derived cell populations. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression and function of histamine receptors, with a focus on the histamine H4 receptor (H4R) in detail during the differentiation process from monocytes to macrophages and on fully differentiated M1 macrophages.

Concepts: Function, Immune system, Histamine H4 receptor, DNA, Gene expression, Cellular differentiation, G protein coupled receptors, Cell biology