Journal: Infection and drug resistance
Manned space flight induces a reduction in immune competence among crew and is likely to cause deleterious changes to the composition of the gastrointestinal, nasal, and respiratory bacterial flora, leading to an increased risk of infection. The space flight environment may also affect the susceptibility of microorganisms within the spacecraft to antibiotics, key components of flown medical kits, and may modify the virulence characteristics of bacteria and other microorganisms that contaminate the fabric of the International Space Station and other flight platforms. This review will consider the impact of true and simulated microgravity and other characteristics of the space flight environment on bacterial cell behavior in relation to the potential for serious infections that may appear during missions to astronomical objects beyond low Earth orbit.
Due to increasing colistin usage, the dissemination of the colistin-resistant gene mcr-1 has been increasingly investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether a traveler on a short-term international trip to a developing country could bring mcr-1 back to their home country.
The advent of multidrug resistance among pathogenic bacteria is imperiling the worth of antibiotics, which have previously transformed medical sciences. The crisis of antimicrobial resistance has been ascribed to the misuse of these agents and due to unavailability of newer drugs attributable to exigent regulatory requirements and reduced financial inducements. Comprehensive efforts are needed to minimize the pace of resistance by studying emergent microorganisms, resistance mechanisms, and antimicrobial agents. Multidisciplinary approaches are required across health care settings as well as environment and agriculture sectors. Progressive alternate approaches including probiotics, antibodies, and vaccines have shown promising results in trials that suggest the role of these alternatives as preventive or adjunct therapies in future.
Treatment options for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remain limited despite this usually nosocomial infection posing an urgent threat to public health. A major paradox of the management of CDI is the use of antimicrobial agents to treat infection, which runs the risk of prolonged gut microbiota perturbation and so recurrence of infection. Here, we explore alternative CDI treatment and prevention options currently available or in development. Notably, strategies that aim to reduce the negative effects of antibiotics on gut microbiota offer the potential to alter current antimicrobial stewardship approaches to preventing CDI.
Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for tuberculosis but little is known about the relationship between tobacco smoking and drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between DR-TB and tobacco smoking.
Influenza virus is a pathogen that causes morbidity and mortality worldwide. Whereas vaccination is important for prevention of disease, given its limitations, antiviral therapy is at the forefront of treatment and also plays a role in prevention. Currently, two classes of antiviral medications, the adamantanes and the neuraminidase inhibitors, are approved for treatment. Given the resistance patterns of circulating influenza, adamantanes are not recommended. Within the US, two neuraminidase inhibitors are currently approved for both treatment and prevention, while worldwide there are four available. In this review, we will briefly discuss the epidemiology and pathology of influenza and then discuss neuraminidase inhibitors: their mechanism of action, resistance, development, and future applications.
In Klebsiella pneumoniae, mgrB and components of pmrHFIJKLM operon play a major role in colistin resistance.
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is resistant to almost all antimicrobial agents, is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, and poses a serious threat to public health. The ongoing worldwide spread of this pathogen emphasizes the need for immediate intervention. This article reviews the global spread and risk factors for CRKP colonization/infection, and provides an overview of the strategy to combat CRKP dissemination.
It is not known whether or not ward-specific antimicrobial use density (AUD) affects the ratio of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in culture-positive S. aureus. A 60-month study was attempted to ascertain the association between inpatient MRSA ratio and ward-specific AUDs as well as the former and latter study intervals, specimen types, and ward specialty. During the study, the professionals in infection control regulated the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials and those for MRSA. By both month and ward, the ratio of inpatients positive for MRSA to those positive for S. aureus was calculated. Factors associated with MRSA ratio included AUDs averaged for the sampling month and its previous month, outpatient MRSA ratio by age, ward specialty, specimen type, and half intervals to represent historical changes. Of a total of 4,245 strains of S. aureus isolated during the 5-year study, 2,232 strains (52.6%) were MRSA. By year, outpatient MRSA ratio at age ≥15 decreased in later years, as did inpatient MRSA ratio. Multivariate analysis for inpatient MRSA ratio revealed a positive risk in AUDs for meropenem (odds ratio [OR] 1.761; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.761-2.637, P = 0.01), imipenem-cilastatin (OR 1.583; 95% CI 1.087-2.306, P = 0.02), ampicillin-sulbactam (OR 1.623; 95% CI 1.114-2.365, P = 0.01), and minocycline (OR 1.680; CI 1.135-2.487, P = 0.01), respiratory care ward (OR 2.292; 95% CI 1.085-4.841, P = 0.03), and outpatient MRSA ratio (OR 1.536; 95% CI 1.070-2.206, P = 0.02). Use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, such as meropenem, imipenem-cilastatin, and ampicillin-sulbactam may increase inpatient MRSA ratio. Ward factor should be included in MRSA surveillance because of the possible effect on AUD and considering patients' backgrounds.
Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a major public health concern because of its high case fatality, long-term morbidity, and potential to course with outbreaks. IMD caused by Nesseira meningitidis serogroup B has been predominant in different regions of the world like Europe and only recently broadly protective vaccines against B serogroup have become available. Two protein-based vaccines, namely 4CMenB (Bexsero®) and rLP2086 (Trumenba®) are currently licensed for use in different countries against MenB disease. These vaccines came from a novel technology on vaccine design (or antigen selection) using highly specific antigen targets identified through whole-genome sequence analysis. Moreover, it has the potential to confer protection against non-B meningococcus and against other Neisserial species such as gonococcus. Real-world data on the vaccine-use are rapidly accumulating from the UK and other countries which used the vaccine for control of outbreak or as part of routine immunization program, reiterating its safety and efficacy. Additional data on real-life effectiveness, long-term immunity, and eventual herd effects, including estimates on vaccine impact for cost-effectiveness assessment are further needed. Given the predominance of MenB in Europe and other parts of the world, these new vaccines are crucial for the prevention and public health control of the disease, and should be considered.