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Journal: Indian pacing and electrophysiology journal

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Fontan surgery and its modifications have improved survival in various forms of univentricular hearts. A regular atrial rhythm with atrioventricular synchrony is one of the most important prerequisite for the long-term effective functioning of this preload dependent circulation. A significant proportion of these survivors need various forms of pacing for bradyarrhythmias, often due to sinus nodal dysfunction and sometimes due to atrioventricular nodal block. The diversion of the venous flows away from the cardiac chambers following this surgery takes away the simpler endocardial pacing options through the superior vena cava. The added risks of thromboembolism associated with endocardial leads in systemic ventricles have made epicardial pacing as the procedure of choice. However challenges in epicardial pacing include surgical adhesions, increased pacing thresholds leading to early battery depletion and frequent lead fractures. When epicardial pacing fails, endocardial lead placement is equally challenging due to lack of access to the cardiac chambers in Fontan circulation. This review discusses the univentricular heart morphologies that may warrant pacing, issues about epicardial pacing, different techniques for endocardial pacing in patients with disconnected superior vena cava, pacing in different modifications of Fontan surgeries, issues of systemic thromboembolism with endocardial leads, atrioventricular valve regurgitation attributed to pacing leads and device infections. In a vast majority of patients following Glenn shunt and Senning surgery, an epicardial pacing and lead replacement is always feasible though technically very difficult. This article highlights the different options of transatrial and transventricular endocardial pacing.

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Anti-arrhythmic drugs (AADs) uniquely affect the various electrolyte channels in the heart and can slow conduction, increase refractoriness, and/or decrease automaticity with the goal of preventing tachyarrhythmias. Due to these properties, these same drugs are by nature pro-arrhythmic. Vaughan-Williams classification Ic AADs belong to a class of medications that inhibit sodium channels, leading to decreased conduction velocity of myocytes and Purkinje fibers as well as to decreased automaticity of pacemaker cells. When present in toxic amounts, this leads to classic changes on the electrocardiogram (ECG) that are harbingers of potentially lethal arrhythmias. Presented is a clinical series of ECGs that occurred in a patient who presented with flecainide toxicity.

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Dextrocardia is a congenital anomaly where the heart is abnormally located in the right hemithorax. In these patients, the implementation of transvenous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (TV-ICD) can be technically challenging and pose a higher risk of complications than the general population. We present the case of a male patient that was successfully submitted to right-sided implantation of subcutaneous ICD (S-ICD) as an alternative to transvenous ICD (TV-ICD) for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. This option is not only feasible but may potentially be ideal for these patients, as it circumvents challenges and potential complications of TV-ICD insertion.

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Transvenous pacing in patients with postoperative complex congenital heart disease (CHD) can be challenging and pose technical challenges to lead placement because of the complex anatomy, distortions produced by the surgical procedures, and the altered relationship of cardiac chambers. We describe the utility of angiography for transvenous dual chamber pacemaker implantation in a post-operative complex congenital heart disease.

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Posteroseptal accessory pathways account for 34.5% of the total. Of these, 36% are located within the coronary sinus (CS). Its ablation requires technical alternatives to avoid damage to surrounding tissues, especially branches of the right coronary artery.

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Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) procedures are being done by many operators/centers and it is projected that this therapy will remarkably increase in India in the coming years. This document by IHRS, aims at guiding the Indian medical community in the appropriate use and method of implantation with emphasis on implanter training and center preparedness to deliver a safe and effective therapy to patients with cardiac rhythm disorders and heart failure.

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Venous revascularization is an approach used in patients with total venous occlusion requiring venous access for cardiac device lead placement. Several percutaneous approaches to venous revascularization have been proposed. For the first time, we describe the case of a 69-year-old male with total venous occlusion who was successfully revascularized using a ‘diathermy’ technique.

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We conducted a review of the literature regarding epidemiology, clinical, electrocardiographic and vectorcardiographic aspects, classification, and differential diagnosis of left posterior fascicular block. Isolated left posterior fascicular block (LPFB) is an extremely rare finding both in the general population and in specific patient groups. In isolated LPFB 20% of the vectorcardiographic (VCG) QRS loop is located in the right inferior quadrant and when associated with right bundle branch block (RBBB) ≥40%. The diagnosis of LPFB should always consider the clinical aspects, because a definite diagnosis cannot be made in the presence of right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/emphysema), extensive lateral myocardial infarction (MI) or extremely vertical heart. Intermittent LPFBs are never complete blocks (transient or second degree LPFB) and even in the permanent ones, one cannot be sure that they are complete. When LPFB is associated with RBBB and acute inferior MI, PR interval prolongation is very frequent.

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Pulmonary vein (PV) reconduction after PV isolation (PVI) unmasked by adenosine is associated with a higher risk for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) recurrence. It is unknown if the reconnected PVs after adenosine testing and immediate re-ablation can predict reconnection and reconnection patterns of PVs at repeat procedures. We assessed reconnection of PVs with and without dormant-conduction (DC) during the first and the repeat procedure.

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Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) lead parameters may deteriorate due to right ventricular (RV) disease such as arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), with implications for safe delivery of therapies. We compared ICD and CRT-D (cardiac resynchronisation therapy-defibrillator) lead parameters in patients with ARVC and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).