SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Indian journal of ophthalmology

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We report the imaging characteristics of focal choroidal excavation (FCE) and associated choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM) and interpret the probable etiopathogenesis of FCE through findings in four patients detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). FCE was found as an acquired entity in two of our cases subsequent to treatment of CNVM, whereas in the two other cases FCE was pre-existing. Furthermore, association of FCE with pachychoroid spectrum is reaffirmed through this case series.

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To evaluate the superficial retinal vascular plexus density using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in cases of strabismic amblyopia.

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Surgical skill enhancement for the residents under training can be performed through various efforts. Here in this report, the authors describe a technique of corneoscleral perforation repair on goat’s eye, as the tissue resemblance and the reality of experience while performing crucial steps are similar to human eyes. Beginning from tissue handling, optimal suture placement was taught with an intention to impart quality techniques of traumatic globe injury repair. Therefore, rather than training on expensive artificial eye model, training budding surgeons on goat’s eye gives much more realistic tissue handling experiences in the presence of constant challenges almost similar to human eyes.

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Retinal cavernous hemangiomas is a rare vascular tumor, isolated and non-progressive. This tumor is incidentally diagnosed on fundus examination and visual impairment can be rare presentation from vitreous hemorrhage, pre-retinal traction, hyphema, or macular scarring. The tumor has typical appearance of grape-like clusters of dilated vascular sacs with variable surface gliosis. Characteristic imaging findings aids in diagnosis. Newly emerged imaging tool is optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT A) which obtains high-resolution visualization of retinal vasculature in non-invasive fashion. In the present case report, we analyzed various diagnostic tool available for retinal cavernous hemangiomas; illustrating on the OCT A features.

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Congenital hypertrophy of retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) is a benign, pigmented, flat lesion arising from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). In this study, we describe optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) features of two eyes with solitary CHRPE. We found that the retinal vasculature over CHRPE was normal in both cases. We observed that in solitary CHRPE, segmentation artifacts can interfere in the interpretation of retinal vasculature due to thinning of the outer retina. Visualization of the underlying choroidal vasculature was obscured to some extent by masking effect of the hyperpigmented RPE. The choroidal vasculature was better appreciated on en face OCTA. On OCTA, the retinal and choroidal vasculature associated with CHRPE was found to be normal in our study.

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Acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) is a deep retinal ischemic manifestation. It has been reported after the use of sympathomimetics, childbirth, bee sting, oral contraceptives, flu-like illness, intravenous contrast agents and bodily trauma not directly involving the eyes. We report a case of AMN following blunt ocular trauma. An 18-year-old male presented with an acute history of blurring of vision following blunt trauma to the right eye. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed hyperreflectivity of the outer nuclear layer with ellipsoid layer disruption. This report highlights AMN as a manifestation of blunt trauma, presence of which may be an indicator of poor visual prognosis.

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We report an unusual case of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) toxicity after only 2 months of starting the treatment. A 42-year-old woman presented with visual impairment. Her visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/25 in the left eye. Ophthalmologic examination revealed a bull’s eye pattern in both eyes which was more prominent in the left eye. She had received HCQ therapy (400 mg/day) for 1 month, and had been taking 200 mg/day for 1 month for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. HCQ macular toxicity is rarely seen in short-term use, before 5 years, and to our knowledge, there is only one other case reported in the literature.

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Visual electrodiagnostics and eye movement recording are important additional clinical tools in evaluation, diagnosing and management of ophthalmic and neurological disorders. Due to their objectiveness and non-invasiveness they can play an important role in pediatric ophthalmology. The WSPOS (World Society of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus) consensus statement gives insight into basic principles and highlights the clinical application of both visual electrodiagnostic tests and eye movement recording.

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To determine the role of primary limbal stem cell transplantation (LSCT) in managing extensive ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) with more than 3 quadrants of limbal involvement to prevent manifestations of limbal stem cell deficiency.

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Modern day cataract surgery is evolving from a visual restorative to a refractive procedure. The advent of multifocal intraocular lenses (MFIOLs) allows greater spectacle independence and increased quality of life postoperatively. Since the inception in 1980s, MFIOLs have undergone various technical advancements including trifocal and extended depth of vision implants more recently. A thorough preoperative workup including the patients' visual needs and inherent ocular anatomy allows us to achieve superior outcomes. This review offers a comprehensive overview of the various types of MFIOLs and principles of optimizing outcomes through a comprehensive preoperative screening and management of postoperative complications.

Concepts: Life, Visual perception, Ophthalmology, Intraocular lens