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Journal: Indian journal of ophthalmology

169

Background: Refractive errors (RE) are the most common cause of avoidable visual impairment in children. But benefits of visual aids, which are means for correcting RE, depend on the compliance of visual aids by end users. Aim: To study the compliance of spectacle wear among rural school children in Pune district as part of the sarva siksha abhiyan (education for all scheme) after 6 - 12 months of providing free spectacles. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional follow-up study of rural secondary school children in western India. Materials and Methods: The students were examined by a team of optometrists who collected the demographic details, observed if the child was wearing the spectacles, and performed an ocular examination. The students were asked to give reasons for non-wear in a closed-ended questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression used for data analysis. Results: Of the 2312 students who were dispensed spectacles in 2009, 1018 were re-examined in 2010. 523 students (51.4%) were female, the mean age was 12.1 years 300 (29.5%) were wearing their spectacles, 492 (68.5%) students claimed to have them at home while 211 (29.4%) reported not having them at all. Compliance of spectacle wear was positively associated to the magnitude of refractive error (P < 0.001), father's education (P = 0.016), female sex (P = 0.029) and negatively associated to the visual acuity of the better eye (P < 0.001) and area of residence (P < 0.0001). Of those that were examined and found to be myopic (N = 499), 220 (44%) wore their spectacles to examination. Factors associated with compliance to spectacle usage in the myopic population included increasing refractive error (P < 0.001), worsening visual acuity (P < 0.001), and higher academic performance (P < 0.001). The causes for not wearing spectacles were 'lost spectacles' 67(9.3%), 'broken spectacles' 125 (17.4%), 'forgot spectacles at home' 117 (16.3%), 'uses spectacles sometimes' 109 (15.2%), 'teased about spectacles' 142 (19.8%) and 'do not like the spectacles' 86 (12%). Conclusion: Spectacle compliance was poor amongst school children in rural Pune; many having significant vision loss as a result.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Refraction, Visual acuity, Ophthalmology, Myopia, Refractive error, Visual impairment, Glasses

168

Aims : To derive a reliable estimate of the frequency of pupillary involvement and to study the patterns and course of anisocoria in conjunction with ophthalmoplegia in diabetes-associated oculomotor nerve palsy. Materials and Methods: In this prospective analytical study, standardized enrolment criteria were employed to identify 35 consecutive patients with diabetes-associated oculomotor nerve palsy who were subjected to a comprehensive ocular examination. Standardized methods were used to evaluate pupil size, shape, and reflexes. The degree of anisocoria, if present and the degree of ophthalmoplegia was recorded at each visit. Results: Pupillary involvement was found to be present in 25.7% of the total number of subjects with diabetic oculomotor nerve palsy. The measure of anisocoria was < 2 mm, and pupil was variably reactive at least to some extent in all cases with pupillary involvement. Majority of patients in both the pupil-involved and pupil-spared group showed a regressive pattern of ophthalmoplegia. Ophthalmoplegia reversed much earlier and more significantly when compared to anisocoria. Conclusions: Pupillary involvement in diabetes-associated oculomotor nerve palsy occurs in about 1/4 th of all cases. Certain characteristics of the pupil help us to differentiate an ischemic insult from an aneurysmal injury to the 3 rd nerve. Ophthalmoplegia resolves much earlier than anisocoria in diabetic oculomotor nerve palsies.

Concepts: Eye, Cranial nerves, Oculomotor nerve, Pupil, Oculomotor nerve palsy, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, Anisocoria, Mydriasis

136

To compare the diagnostic ability of the ganglion cell analysis (GCA) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) protocol on optical coherence tomography (OCT), to diagnose preperimetric glaucoma.

Concepts: Nervous system, Optics, Diagnosis, Greek loanwords, Retina, Optical coherence tomography, Nerve fiber layer

27

In this brief review we will discuss the reasoning and evolution of our current use of combined very high-fluence collagen crosslinking and laser in situ keratomileusis. Several presentations and pertinent publications are reviewed, along with the key steps of the enhanced LASIK procedure. Long term outcome data support the safety and efficacy of LASIK Xtra in stabilizing myopic but also hyperopic LASIK results.In conclusion, we have compelling evidence that LASIK Xtra is a safe and effective adjunct.

Concepts: Critical thinking, Laser, The Key, Ophthalmology, Term, Refractive surgery, LASIK, Hyperopia

23

Indian children belong to a diverse socioeconomic strata with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) developing in mature, higher birth weight babies as well. The purpose of our study is to analyze the long-term status of refractive errors and its relationship with ocular biometry in children with ROP who were laser treated at a tertiary center in North India.

Concepts: Light, Refraction, Laser, Ophthalmology, India, Monsoon, South India, Retinopathy of prematurity

3

Optimal outcomes of a cataract surgery largely depend on the successful performance of an anterior capsulotomy. It is one of the most important steps of modern cataract surgery which reduces the risk of capsular tears and ensures postoperative stable intraocular lens (IOL). Anterior capsulotomy is considered ideal if it is round, continuous, well-centered, and overlaps the implanted IOL around its circumference. If any of these features is missing, it can be a cause of impedance for desired surgical and visual outcomes. Manual can opener and manual capsulorhexis are the routine standard techniques employed for manual extracapsular cataract extraction and phacoemulsification, respectively. Recent increasing use of femtosecond laser cataract surgery has allowed cataract surgeons to obviate inherent inaccuracies of manual anterior capsulotomy techniques. There is an ongoing quest to find an ideal, risk free, and surgeon-friendly technique of anterior capsulotomy that can be employed for surgery in all types of cataracts.

2

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide which unfortunately has no known effective cure to date. Despite many clinical trials indicating the effectiveness of preclinical treatment, a sensitive tool for screening of AD is yet to be developed. Due to multiple similarities between ocular and the brain tissue, the eye is being explored by researchers for this purpose, with utmost attention focused on the retinal tissue. Besides visual functional impairment, neuronal degeneration and apoptosis, retinal nerve fiber degeneration, increase in the cup-to-disc ratio, and retinal vascular thinning and tortuosity are the changes observed in the retinal tissue which are related to AD. Studies have shown that targeting these changes in the retina is an effective way of reducing the degeneration of retinal neuronal tissue. Similar mechanisms of neurodegeneration have been demonstrated in the brain and the eyes of AD patients. Multiple studies are underway to investigate the potential of diagnosing AD and detection of amyloid-β (Aβ) levels in the retinal tissue. Since the tissues in the anterior segment of the eye are more accessible for in vivo imaging and examination, they have more potential as screening biomarkers. This article provides a concise review of available literature on the ocular biomarkers in anterior and posterior segments of the eye including the cornea, aqueous humour (AH), crystalline lens, and retina in AD. This review will also highlight the newer technological tools available for the detection of potential biomarkers in the eye for early diagnosis of AD.

2

To evaluate the superficial retinal vascular plexus density using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in cases of strabismic amblyopia.

2

Surgical skill enhancement for the residents under training can be performed through various efforts. Here in this report, the authors describe a technique of corneoscleral perforation repair on goat’s eye, as the tissue resemblance and the reality of experience while performing crucial steps are similar to human eyes. Beginning from tissue handling, optimal suture placement was taught with an intention to impart quality techniques of traumatic globe injury repair. Therefore, rather than training on expensive artificial eye model, training budding surgeons on goat’s eye gives much more realistic tissue handling experiences in the presence of constant challenges almost similar to human eyes.

2

Retinal cavernous hemangiomas is a rare vascular tumor, isolated and non-progressive. This tumor is incidentally diagnosed on fundus examination and visual impairment can be rare presentation from vitreous hemorrhage, pre-retinal traction, hyphema, or macular scarring. The tumor has typical appearance of grape-like clusters of dilated vascular sacs with variable surface gliosis. Characteristic imaging findings aids in diagnosis. Newly emerged imaging tool is optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT A) which obtains high-resolution visualization of retinal vasculature in non-invasive fashion. In the present case report, we analyzed various diagnostic tool available for retinal cavernous hemangiomas; illustrating on the OCT A features.