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Journal: Homeopathy : the journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy


Lycopodium clavatum (Lyc) is a widely used homeopathic medicine for the liver, urinary and digestive disorders. Recently, acetyl cholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity has been found in Lyc alkaloid extract, which could be beneficial in dementia disorder. However, the effect of Lyc has not yet been explored in animal model of memory impairment and on cerebral blood flow.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Traumatic brain injury, Neuroscience, Neurology, Hematology, Acetylcholine, Alternative medicine, Lycopodium clavatum


A systematic approach to the design of simple, chemical systems for investigating the nature of homeopathic medicines has led to the development of an experimental protocol in which solvatochromic dyes are used as molecular probes of serially diluted and agitated solutions. Electronic spectroscopy has been used to follow changes in the absorbance of this class of dyes across the visible spectrum in the presence of homeopathic potencies. Evidence is presented using six different solvatochromic dyes in three different solvent systems. In all cases homeopathic potencies produce consistent and reproducible changes in the spectra of the dyes. Results suggest that potencies influence the supramolecular chemistry of solvatochromic dyes, enhancing either dye aggregation or disaggregation, depending upon dye structure. Comparable dyes lacking the intramolecular charge transfer feature of solvatochromic dyes are unaffected by homeopathic potencies, suggesting potencies require the oscillating dipole of solvatochromic dyes for effective interaction. The implications of the results presented, both for an eventual understanding of the nature of homeopathic medicines and their mode of action, together with future directions for research in this area, are discussed.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Molecule, Chemistry, Chemical substance, Acetic acid, Supramolecular chemistry, Dye, Homeopathy


The debate between those who believe homeopathy and hormesis derive from the same root and those who believe the two are different phenomena is as old as hormesis. It is an emotionally loaded discussion, with both sides fielding arguments which are far from scientific. Careful analysis of the basic paradigms of the two systems questions the claim of the homeopaths, who find similarities between them. The authors discuss these paradigms, indicating the differences between the claims of homeopathy and hormesis. It is time for thorough and serious research to lay this question to rest. One possible approach is to compare the activity of a hormetic agent, prepared in the usual way, with that of the same agent in the same concentration prepared homeopathically by serial dilution and succussion.

Concepts: Debate, English-language films, Question, Difference, Argumentation theory, Homeopathy, Serial dilution, Patent infringement


Influenza and its complications are common at all ages, especially in children. Vaccines and anti-influenza drugs aim to prevent it. Preventative approaches with favorable risk profiles should be considered for flu, particularly since the evidence of the efficacy of anti-viral drugs is debated.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Randomized controlled trial, Antiviral drug, Influenza, Placebo, Mucus, Influenza vaccine, Preventive medicine


It has been claimed that the homeopathic principle of ‘similarity’ (or ‘similia’) and the use of individualized remedies in extremely low doses conflicts with scientific laws, but this opinion can be disputed on the basis of recent scientific advances. Several mechanisms to explain the responsiveness of cells to ultra-low doses and the similarity as inversion of drug effects, have again been suggested in the framework of hormesis and modern paradoxical pharmacology. Low doses or high dilutions of a drug interact only with the enhanced sensitivities of regulatory systems, functioning as minute harmful stimuli to trigger specific compensatory healing reactions. Here we review hypotheses about homeopathic drug action at cellular and molecular levels, and present a new conceptual model of the principle of similarity based on allosteric drug action. While many common drugs act through orthostatic chemical interactions aimed at blocking undesired activities of enzymes or receptors, allosteric interactions are associated with dynamic conformational changes and functional transitions in target proteins, which enhance or inhibit specific cellular actions in normal or disease states. The concept of allostery and the way it controls physiological activities can be broadened to include diluted/dynamized compounds, and may constitute a working hypothesis for the study of molecular mechanisms underlying the inversion of drug effects.

Concepts: Scientific method, Protein, Pharmacology, Chemical reaction, Drug, Hypothesis, Chemical compound, Theory


 The healthcare programs of the Region of Tuscany (Italy) have started the process of integration of some types of complementary medicine (CM), including homeopathy, which began in 1996. The Homeopathic Clinic of Lucca was opened in 1998, followed by the Homeopathic Clinic for Women in 2003, and the Clinic for CM and Diet in Oncology in 2013.

Concepts: Health care, Health economics, Medicine, Public health, Health, Alternative medicine, Tuscany, Florence


Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of veterinary homeopathy has not previously been undertaken. For all medical conditions and species collectively, we tested the hypothesis that the outcome of homeopathic intervention (treatment and/or prophylaxis, individualised and/or non-individualised) is distinguishable from corresponding intervention using placebos.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Placebo, Alternative medicine, Homeopathy


Ninety-six cobb race chickens were equally divided in 4 groups and randomly assigned to receive a standard treatment feed + homeopathic concentrations of Symphytum (S.) officinalis (9CH), or standard treatment feed + homeopathic concentrations of Tricalcarea (4CH), or standard treatment feed + homeopathic concentrations of Calcarea (C.) carbonica (30CH) or a placebo (the same feed but without any homeopathic compound) in order to assess the ability of the homeopathic compounds to increase the concentration of calcium hydroxyapatite in the sternal spongy bone tissue. We measured the concentration of calcium hydroxyapatite in the sternal spongy bone tissue of all chickens by means of a computed tomography (CT).

Concepts: Bone, Skeletal system, Concentration, Chemistry, Osseous tissue, Cortical bone, Osseointegration, Cancellous bone


 Hot flashes are common in women during menopause, and are an important cause of discomfort, increasing the number of medical appointments. Hormone replacement therapy is an effective treatment, but it can bring undesirable consequences. Alternative treatments exist but they are not universally accepted or effective. The ingestion of malagueta peppers (popular name for fruits of Capsicum frutescens L., Solanaceae) causes sensations similar to those experienced by women during hot flashes. Using the homeopathic law of similars (let like be cured by like), we hypothesized that a homeopathic remedy made of malagueta peppers can be effective in alleviating menopausal hot flashes. We named this remedy Malagueta.


 This study focuses on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of individualised homeopathic treatment (IHT) in which the control (comparator) group was other than placebo (OTP).