SciCombinator

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Journal: Herz

28

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after ablation is difficult to predict. The development of AF is associated with inflammation, and inflammatory markers such as big endothelin-1 (big ET-1) reflect inflammatory status. It is unknown, however, whether big ET-1 can be used as a predictor for AF recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma levels of big ET-1 and AF recurrence. METHODS: A total of 158 patients who had undergone primary ablation for symptomatic and/or drug-refractory AF, including 103 with paroxysmal and 55 with persistent AF, were included in this study. Left atrial diameter was measured with echocardiography and plasma big ET-1 levels with ELISA. All patients were followed up for at least 12 months and AF recurrence defined as an episode of AF lasting ≥ 30 s, with or without atrial flutter or atrial tachycardia. RESULTS: The AF recurrence rate was 44.9% (71/158) during the median follow-up period of 22 (13, 40) months. Plasma levels of big ET-1 in the recurrence group were higher than those in the non-recurrence group in all patients [0.80 (0.54, 1.30) vs. 0.57 (0.48, 0.72) fmol·L(-) (1), p  = 0.001], in patients with paroxysmal AF [0.81 (0.46, 1.30) vs. 0.57 (0.48, 0.70) fmol·L(-) (1), p  = 0.009] as well as in patients with persistent AF [0.77 (0.57, 1.28) vs. 0.57 (0.49, 0.89) fmol·L(-) (1), p = 0.034]. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that plasma levels of big ET-1 were associated with AF recurrence in patients with paroxysmal AF (p  = 0.037). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the sinus rhythm maintenance rate was lower in patients with higher big ET-1 levels than those with lower levels (p  < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline plasma big ET-1 levels are associated with AF recurrence after primary ablation procedure in patients with paroxysmal AF, and may be used in the prediction of AF recurrence in these patients.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Logistic regression, Atrial fibrillation, Cardiac electrophysiology, Supraventricular tachycardia, Atrial flutter, Tachycardia, Left atrial appendage

25

Due to the increased life expectancy and continual improvements in cardiological treatment options, diseases of the tricuspid valve, in particular tricuspid valve insufficiency will become increasingly more recognized as an interventional target. While tricuspid stenosis is rare and can be effectively treated with balloon valvuloplasty, no effective transcatheter approach to tricuspid regurgitation (TR) has yet been established. As the tricuspid annulus is a complex and highly dynamic structure that offers little resistance, orthotopic long-term fixation of transcatheter valves with the current techniques is challenging and has not yet been performed in human patients. Alternative treatment concepts include transcatheter caval valve implantation (CAVI) to address the regurgitation of blood into the caval veins, which has resulted in hemodynamic improvement and is currently undergoing further clinical investigation. Other interventional treatment concepts are aimed at tricuspid valve repair, e.g. by annular plication with the Mitralign™ device or the TriCinch™ system. In the medium-term it can be assumed that percutaneous systems and therapy options will become available for these indications whereby the functional and prognostic effects of these treatment procedures will be corroborated in the appropriate patient groups by corresponding studies.

Concepts: Heart, Right atrium, Tricuspid valve, Annulus, Abstraction, Tricuspid insufficiency, Regurgitation, Valvular heart disease

12

The individual amount of alcohol consumed acutely or chronically decides on harm or benefit to a person’s health. Available data suggest that one to two drinks in men and one drink in women will benefit the cardiovascular system over time, one drink being 17.6 ml 100 % alcohol. Moderate drinking can reduce the incidence and mortality of coronary artery disease, heart failure, diabetes, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. More than this amount can lead to alcoholic cardiomyopathy, which is defined as alcohol toxicity to the heart muscle itself by ethanol and its metabolites. Historical examples of interest are the Munich beer heart and the Tübingen wine heart. Associated with chronic alcohol abuse but having different etiologies are beriberi heart disease (vitamin B1 deficiency) and cardiac cirrhosis as hyperdynamic cardiomyopathies, arsenic poising in the Manchester beer epidemic, and cobalt intoxication in Quebec beer drinker’s disease. Chronic heavy alcohol abuse will also increase blood pressure and cause a downregulation of the immune system that could lead to increased susceptibility to infections, which in turn could add to the development of heart failure. Myocardial tissue analysis resembles idiopathic cardiomyopathy or chronic myocarditis. In the diagnostic work-up of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, the confirmation of alcohol abuse by carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) and increased liver enzymes, and the involvement of the heart by markers of heart failure (e.g., NT-proBNP) and of necrosis (e.g., troponins or CKMb) is mandatory. Treatment of alcoholic cardiomyopathy consists of alcohol abstinence and heart failure medication.

Concepts: Immune system, Blood, Myocardial infarction, Cardiology, Heart, Alcoholism, Circulatory system, Alcoholic beverage

1

Several recent small studies have suggested a causal link between Lyme disease and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) by demonstrating the presence of the Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) genome in the myocardium of patients with recent-onset DCM. The aim of this study was to further investigate the effect of targeted antibiotic treatment of Bb-related recent-onset DCM in a larger cohort of patients.

Concepts: Bacteria, Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia, Allen Steere

0

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2)Pro12Ala polymorphism has been reported to be associated with hypertension. However, relevant studies have shown inconsistent results.

Concepts: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

0

The tricuspid valve and the right ventricle are hemodynamically closely related. Pathological changes of the valve or of the ventricle itself and also various diseases beyond that can result in a downward spiral of mutual interference, which is of prognostic importance for the patient. The development of a functional tricuspid regurgitation is of great importance. Especially with the help of 3D-echocardiography, more and more changes and mechanisms have been identified that are crucial in this process. This article provides a review of the relationship between the tricuspid valve and the right ventricle emphasizing the current knowledge of the causes, the pathophysiological concepts, the underlying structural changes and the therapeutic approaches based on this.

Concepts: Heart, Right ventricle, Tricuspid valve, Tricuspid insufficiency, Regurgitation

0

Our study aimed to summarize the clinical outcomes of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in adult patients with acute fulminant myocarditis and to investigate the risk factors associated with its application.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Medical terms, Risk, The Canon of Medicine, Avicenna, Factor analysis, Extracorporeal, Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

0

The treatment of ventricular tachycardia has recently undergone relevant changes as certain interventional treatment options, such as radiofrequency catheter ablation, have gained in importance. Numerous current publications have demonstrated the advantages of catheter ablation compared to conventional therapy with antiarrhythmic drugs in terms of effectiveness and morbidity. Improving the ablation technique and identifying those patient collectives who are most likely to benefit from ablation are still the objectives of current research. The treatment of ventricular tachycardia in the setting of different cardiac and non-cardiac conditions can be challenging and requires understanding of the current procedures and the recommendations for catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia. This review succinctly summarizes the current research in this evolving field of interventional cardiology.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Cardiology, Interventional cardiology, Ventricular tachycardia, Supraventricular tachycardia, The Current, Amiodarone, Tachycardia

0

To better understand the molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis, we conducted a comparative analysis of DNA methylation patterns in right coronary arteries in the area of advanced atherosclerotic plaques (CAP), great saphenous vein (GSV), and internal mammary artery (IMA) of patients affected by coronary heart disease.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Angina pectoris, Heart, Blood vessel, Atheroma, Artery, Coronary circulation, Coronary artery bypass surgery

0

Decreasing body temperature on first follow-up visit-relative to discharge-predicts early rehospitalization in heart failure (HF). We studied whether admission-to-discharge temperature reduction was associated with increased HF rehospitalization in the ESCAPE trial.

Concepts: Heart failure, Acute decompensated heart failure