SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Hematological oncology

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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized by a variable clinical course in which patients can experience indolent disease or frequent relapses despite a good initial response to conventional therapy. Risk stratification of MCL is most frequently performed using the MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI). Recent studies indicate that the peripheral blood absolute monocyte count (AMC) and tumour-associated macrophages may reflect the state of the tumour microenvironment in lymphomas. The significance of AMC and tumour-associated macrophages in the clinical course of MCL is unknown. The prognostic impact of the AMC, of CD68 expression and of CD163 expression was retrospectively examined in 103 MCL samples using the receiver operating characteristic curved. Patients with an AMC ≥ 375 cells/μL at diagnosis were more likely to present with advanced-stage disease (p = 0.026), leukocytosis (p < 0.001), lymphocytosis (p = 0.01) and granulocytosis (p = 0.003). On univariate analysis, a high AMC (≥375 cells/μL) correlated with poorer overall survival (OS) (p = 0.01). Neither CD68 nor CD163 expression was significantly associated with either OS or event-free survival. Multivariate analysis showed that a high AMC was a prognostic factor for OS, independent of the MIPI [hazards ratio (HR), 1.811; 95% confidence interval, 1.018-3.223; p = 0.043]. This study demonstrates that the AMC at the time of diagnosis is an independent prognostic factor for OS in MCL, which suggests the possibility that AMC may be used in addition to the MIPI to predict outcome in patients with MCL. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Monocyte, Cancer, Macrophage, Multivariate statistics, Hematology, Prognosis, Univariate, Mantle cell lymphoma

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The diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is delayed by most physicians. This study aimed to identify early parameters and suitable scoring systems for the risk of HLH. Clinical and laboratory data collected ≤3 days after admission were defined as early parameters and used to calculate the number of HLH-2004 criteria met and bone marrow (BM) score. Between January 2006 and February 2016, 233 immunocompetent adults with naïve fever of unknown origin who underwent a BM study were enrolled to mimic patients at risk of HLH and randomly assigned into the developmental or validation cohort. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis was finally diagnosed in 47 patients, with non-Hodgkin lymphoma as the major etiology (51.1%). Upon admission, four-fifths of patients who developed subsequent HLH fulfilled ≤3 of 8 HLH-2004 criteria, and 6 early parameters were independent predictors of HLH: anemia (hemoglobin < 10 g/dL), thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100 × 10(3) /μL), leukoerythroblastosis, hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin > 2 × upper normal limit), hyperferritinemia (ferritin > 1000 ng/mL), and splenomegaly. Compared with the HLH criteria met upon admission, the BM score was an independent predictor (odds ratio = 1.621; 95% confidence interval, 1.355-1.940) with excellent discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.920; 95% confidence interval, 0.883-0.958). The sensitivity and specificity for a BM score cutoff of 10 points were 95% and 75%, respectively. When approaching immunocompetent adults with a continuously high fever, the BM score at initial admission assists with early identification of patients at risk of HLH.

Concepts: Positive predictive value, Bone marrow, Type I and type II errors, Sensitivity and specificity, Blood disorders, Fever, Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Binary classification

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Leukostasis is a poorly understood and life-threatening complication of acute hyperleukocytic leukemia. The incidence of hyperleukocytosis and leukostasis differs among various subtypes of leukemias. While the pathophysiology of leukostasis is not fully understood, recent research has elucidated many novel pathways that may have therapeutic implications in the future. Respiratory and neurological compromise represents the classical clinical manifestations of leukostasis. If it is not diagnosed and treated rapidly, the one-week mortality rate is approximately 40%. Targeted induction chemotherapy is an important component of the successful treatment of leukostasis, although other modalities of cytoreduction are being used and investigated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Blood, Medical statistics, Bone marrow, Chemotherapy, Leukemia, Cyclophosphamide

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This is a phase II study of panobinostat, an oral pan-HDAC inhibitor, combined with rituximab in patients with relapsed diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Panobinostat was administered orally 3 times a week every other week on a 28-day cycle. Rituximab was administered weekly during the first cycle, then on Day 1 of cycles 2 to 6. Patients without disease progression after 6 cycles continued panobinostat monotherapy for up to 6 additional cycles in the absence of disease progression. Eighteen eligible subjects were enrolled, and 18 were evaluable for response. The overall response rate was 11% (90% CI [2%-34%]) with 2 subjects having a partial response. The duration of response in these subjects was 51 and 60 days. Five additional subjects had stable disease with 3 subjects having tumor reduction between 27 and 44%, not meeting criteria for partial response. One subject with stable disease remained on therapy a total of 12 cycles. The most common toxicities while on study were thrombocytopenia (14 patients, 78%); fatigue (11, 61%); anemia (10, 56%); diarrhea (8, 44%); and nausea, lymphopenia, anorexia, and hypophosphatemia (5 each, 28% of patients), the majority of which was grade 2 or less. These data indicate that the combination of panobinostat with rituximab is able to induce responses in a limited number of subjects with relapsed diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

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Prognoses of persons with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) including time-to-therapy (TTT) and survival is heterogeneous. Risk factors and predictive scoring systems are mostly developed in persons of predominately European descent with CLL. Whether these systems accurately predict TTT and survival of Han Chinese with CLL is unknown. We interrogated clinical and laboratory data from 334 newly diagnosed, untreated Chinese CLL without treatment indication upon diagnosis to identify variables associated with TTT and develop a prognostic score. Binet stage, blood lymphocyte level, TP53 abnormality, unmutated IGHV, prior HBV, and EBV infections were independently associated with TTT in multivariate analyses. We constructed a prognostic score dividing subjects into cohorts with low, intermediate, and high risk from diagnosis to TTT. Median TTTs were 139 months (range, 85-189 months), 25 months (12-38 months), and 4 months (1-7 months; P-value for trend <0.001). We identified variables associated with TTT in Chinese with CLL with no treatment indication and developed a predictive model for survival. Some variables associated with TTT are similar to those of persons of predominately European descent, whereas others, such as HBV and/or EBV infections, operate in Chinese and Europeans but are not currently included in prognostic and predictive staging systems in persons of European descent. They should be investigated.

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The search for clinically relevant molecular markers in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is hampered by the histopathological complexity of the disease, resulting from the admixture of a small number of neoplastic Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (H-RS) cells with an abundant and heterogeneous microenvironment. In this study, we evaluated gene expression profiles of 11 selected genes previously proposed as a molecular score for adult cHL, aiming to validate its application in the pediatric setting. Assays were performed by RT-qPCR from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) lymph nodes in 80 patients with cHL. Selected genes were associated with cell cycle (CENPF, CDK1, CCNA2, CCNE2, and HMMR), apoptosis (BCL2, BCL2L1, and CASP3), and monocytes/macrophages (LYZ and STAT1). Despite using controlled preanalytical and analytical strategies, we were not able to validate the 11-gene score to be applied in pediatric cHL. Principal component analysis (PCA) disclosed 3 components that accounted for 65.7% of the total variability. The second PC included microenvironment and apoptosis genes, from which CASP3 expression was associated with a short time of progression-free survival, which impact was maintained in the unfavorable risk group, Epstein-Barr virus-negative cases, and multivariate analysis (P < .05). Because this is a counterintuitive association, CASP3 active expression was assessed at the protein level in H-RS cells by double immunohistochemistry. In contrast to the association of mRNA levels with a poor therapeutic response, a high number of cleaved CASP3+ cells were associated with longer progression-free survival (P = .03) and overall survival (P = .002). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using FFPE samples as RNA source for molecular prognostication, but argue against the concept of direct and wide applicability of molecular scores in cHL. We reinforce the potential of CASP3 as an interesting target to be explored in adult and pediatric cHL, and alert for its dual biological role in H-RS cells and tumor microenvironment.

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Pirarubicin (tetrahydropyranyl adriamycin [THP]) is an anthracyclin with less cardiotoxicity than doxorubicin (DOX). We previously reported the efficacy and safety of R-THP-COP consisting of rituximab ®, THP, cyclophosphamide (CPA), vincristine (VCR), and prednisolone (PSL) for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in phase 2 studies. Here, we prospectively compared the efficacy and safety of the R-THP-COP and standard R-CHOP regimen (consisting of R, CPA, DOX, VCR, and PSL) in a noninferiority phase 3 trial. This prospective, randomized phase 3 study included patients younger than 70 years of age with previously untreated DLBCL. The regimen consisted of R (day 1), DOX, or THP (day 3), CPA (day 3), VCR (day 3), and PSL for 5 days every 3 weeks for 6 to 8 cycles. Between July 5, 2006 and June 11, 2013, 81 patients were randomly assigned to the treatment groups (R-CHOP group, 40 patients; R-THP-COP group, 41 patients). R-THP-COP was noninferior to R-CHOP, as assessed by the primary endpoint of complete response rate (85% vs 85% respectively). With a median follow-up of 75.2 months, the 5-year overall survival was 87% in the R-CHOP group and 82% in the R-THP-COP group (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31-2.49; P = .82). The 5-year progression-free survival was 74% in the R-CHOP group and 79% in the R-THP-COP group (HR: 1.37, 95% CI: 0.56-3.55; P = .49). No grade 3 cardiac side effects were observed in either group. No serious late adverse reactions were observed in either group, with the exception of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia in the R-THP-COP group. These data indicate that R-THP-COP is noninferior to R-CHOP with regard to clinical response, and has an acceptable safety profile. Thus, this regimen may be an alternative therapy to R-CHOP.

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The outcome of patients with relapsed/refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (R/R cHL) after autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) is poor. Recently, the anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody-drug conjugate, brentuximab vedotin (BV), has shown remarkable activity in the setting of R/R cHL. In the pivotal phase II study, BV produced an overall response rate of 75% and a median progression-free survival of 6.7 months. Although these results have been reproduced by large registry studies, the impact of BV on the overall survival (OS) of patients with R/R cHL has not been addressed so far. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of BV on OS in the setting of post auto-SCT R/R cHL. Analysis was performed in a group of patients with R/R cHL after a previous auto-SCT reported in the Greek registry during the last 2 decades. By using a multivariate model and censoring patients at the time of subsequent allo-SCT or treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, we showed that treatment with BV in the posttransplant relapse setting has a positive impact on the outcome and results in significant improvement of OS. To our knowledge, this the first published study, addressing the impact of BV on the OS in the setting of posttransplant relapse.

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Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have a greater risk of developing both Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-HL than the general population. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is more common than HL in these patients, and diffuse large B cell lymphoma is the most frequent subtype observed. Although the clinical course of lymphoma in RA is often aggressive, the prognosis in these cases is similar to that of lymphoma in the general population. In this review, we summarize data derived from both retrospective and prospective studies, regarding incidence, pathogenesis, and outcome of lymphomas in RA patients and outline the possible mechanisms and hypotheses linking these 2 disorders. Over the years, 3 main theories have been suggested to explain this association. These hypotheses relate to genetic predisposition, persistence of long standing disease activity with continued immune stimulation, and the role of anti-RA therapy given. A common genetic predisposition linking RA and lymphoma has not been established. As for treatment of RA, this includes immunosuppressive antitumor necrosis factor drugs or conventional disease modifying antirheumatic drugs like methotrexate. Neither of these drug categories appears to be associated with a higher risk of lymphoma in RA. The impact of continuing disease activity and immune stimulation appears to be the most significant in lymphomagenesis in these patients.

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Limited data was available for long-term follow-up in newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients treated with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) plus intravenously arsenic trioxide (ATO)-based front-line therapy. The aim of this work was to retrospectively analyze the long-term survival rate and frequency of therapy-related myeloid neoplasia (t-MN) occurring in a large cohort of APL patients. A total of 760 newly diagnosed patients with APL between January 1999 and May 2016 were evaluated. The early death rate was 9.2% (70/760). Of the remaining 690 patients with complete remission, patients were grouped according to front-line regimens: ATRA plus ATO with or without chemotherapy (ATO group) and ATRA with chemotherapy (non-ATO group). The median duration of follow-up was 7.5 years (1.0-18.3 years). ATO group showed significant superior 10-year estimated relapse-free survival (RFS) up to 90.3% comparing with 65.5% in the non-ATO group (P < 0.0001). In addition, the 10-year estimated overall survival (OS) was 93.9% for patients in the ATO group and 89.1% for those in the non-ATO group (P = 0.03). In the subgroup analysis, the RFS rate was also higher in ATO group comparing with non-ATO group in both low-to-intermediate-risk (94.2% vs 64.6%, P < 0.0001) and high-risk subgroup (89.6% vs 74.7%, P = 0.04). Notably, the 3-year RFS and OS rates in the chemotherapy-free subgroup of the low-to-intermediate-risk patients (n = 88) were 100% and 100%, respectively. In the entire cohort, a total of 10 patients developed secondary malignant neoplasms, including 7 patients with therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN). The estimated 5-year cumulative incidence risk of t-MN in the ATO and non-ATO groups was 1.0% and 0.4%, respectively (P = 0.34). Thus, our data revealed that the long-term outcome of patients treated with ATRA plus ATO-based regimens was associated with continuing high efficacy in all Sanz risk patients with newly diagnosed APL.