Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie


Bibrocathol is a well-established antiseptic drug for the treatment of acute eyelid diseases like blepharitis. Despite its frequent use in clinical practice, no controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of bibrocathol 2% eye ointment has been performed until now. The aim of the study was to investigate efficacy, safety and tolerability of bibrocathol (Posiformin® 2 %) eye ointment in patients diagnosed with blepharitis.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Medical terms, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Clinical trial protocol, Chalazion


Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has rapidly emerged as a global health threat. The purpose of this article is to share our local experience of stepping up infection control measures in ophthalmology to minimise COVID-19 infection of both healthcare workers and patients.


To evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of preservative-free fluoroquinolone products compared with benzalkonium chloride containing fluoroquinolones using the challenge test provided by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and the in-use test.

Concepts: United States, U.S. state, Caribbean, Quinolone, Chlorides, Benzalkonium chloride, United States Pharmacopeia


To analyze the possible factors correlated with the development of retinal detachment (RD) after cataract extraction and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in a single medical center.

Concepts: Ophthalmology, Intraocular lens, Phacoemulsification


To evaluate whether the status of the external limiting membrane (ELM) or inner segment/outer segment junction (IS/OS) improves after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We also evaluated whether the pre-operative values of these parameters are associated with the visual prognosis.

Concepts: Retina, Macular degeneration, Ranibizumab


BACKGROUND: To assess the presence and extent of photophobia in children with intermittent exotropia (X[T]) using the contrast sensitivity test. METHODS: Fifty-eight children with X(T) and 34 normal controls were studied with the functional acuity contrast test. Each participant viewed the stimuli of contrast monocularly and binocularly under photopic and mesopic conditions, performed with and without glare. Photophobia was defined as a reduction of contrast sensitivity caused by glare light. We compared the photophobia of children with X(T) to that of normal controls, and to the photophobia 3 months after muscle surgery. RESULTS: With stimuli of glare, the contrast sensitivity of children with X(T) was suppressed at intermediate spatial frequencies under mesopic condition (p = 0.006 for 6 cycles per degree [cpd], p = 0.027 for 12 cpd), whereas that of normal controls showed no difference. It occurred when X(T) patients viewed targets binocularly, and significantly improved after strabismus surgery (p = 0.003 at 6 cpd). The measured photophobia of X(T) was strongly correlated to the photophobia symptoms reported by parents (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The mesopic contrast sensitivity with glare can represent the photophobia of children with X(T). Contrast sensitivity may be a useful measure for monitoring symptoms related to X(T).

Concepts: Measurement, Metrology, Psychometrics, Vision, Test method, Strabismus, Exotropia, Strabismus surgery


BACKGROUND: Primary vitreous floaters can be highly bothersome in some patients. In the case of persistently bothersome floaters, pars plana vitrectomy may be the most effective treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of complications, and patient satisfaction, after pars plana vitrectomy for disabling primary vitreous opacities. METHODS: We included a total of 110 eyes that underwent pars plana vitrectomy between February 1998 and August 2010. Fifty-seven eyes (51.8 %) underwent 20-gauge vitrectomy, whereas 53 eyes (48.2 %) underwent 23-gauge vitrectomy. In a retrospective manner, we assessed intraoperative and postoperative complications. There was a considerable range of time between surgery and questionnaire (range: 4-136 months). Patient satisfaction was assessed by a questionnaire based on a modified NEI VFQ-25 questionnaire. RESULTS: A retinal detachment occurred in 10.9 % of cases, and the incidence did not differ significantly between the 20-gauge and 23-gauge vitrectomy groups. In 4.5 % of the eyes, a retinal detachment developed within the first 3 months, and 6.4 % occurred later in the postoperative period. Cystoid macular edema occurred in 5.5 %, and an epiretinal membrane was seen postoperatively in 3.6 % of cases. Development of glaucoma requiring glaucoma surgery, a macular hole, and postoperative scotoma, each occurred in 0.9 % of cases. No cases of endophthalmitis occurred. Eighty-five percent of patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the results of the vitrectomy. Eighty-four percent of all patients were completely cured from their troublesome vitreous floaters, and an additional 9.3 % of patients were less troubled by vitreous floaters. Ten patients (9.3 %) were dissatisfied, and six of these patients (5.6 %) had a serious complication that resulted in permanent visual loss. CONCLUSIONS: Pars plana vitrectomy is an effective approach to treat primary vitreous floaters, resulting in a high rate of patient satisfaction. Postoperative complications may be more frequent than previously reported, so patients should be well-informed about the complication rate before reaching informed consent about this surgical intervention. Additional preventive measures should be considered to reduce this complication rate.

Concepts: Surgery, Medical signs, Retina, Ophthalmology, Vitrectomy, Diabetic retinopathy, Vision loss, Floater


Surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) should usually be performed as soon as possible. However, a risk of operating in an emergency setting has to be considered against the risk of delaying it.

Concepts: Retina, Retinal detachment


BACKGROUND: Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), a technique that combines riboflavin administration with long-wave ultraviolet light irradiation, was primarily developed to increase the biomechanical strength of collagen fibrils of the cornea to avoid the progression of keratoconus. Recently, this method has been proposed to treat selected cases of infectious keratitis. METHODS: To test the protocol used for progressive keratoconus in infectious keratitis, Candida albicans, and Fusarium solani, strains were exposed to irradiation using a wavelength of 365 nm at a power density of 3 mW/cm(2) for 30 min in the presence of riboflavin photosensitizer. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of fungal viability used plate cultures and an automated trypan blue dye exclusion method respectively. Fungal cell diameter was also assessed in all groups. Statistical analyses were performed using the triplicate values of each experimental condition. RESULTS: Experimental findings of photodynamic therapy applied to the cell inactivation of both yeasts and filamentous fungi were compared with control groups. Qualitative results were corroborated with quantitative findings which showed no statistical significance between challenged samples (experimental groups) and the control group (p-value = 1). In comparison with a control group of live cells, statistical significance was observed when riboflavin solution alone had an effect on the morphologic size of filamentous fungi, while ultraviolet light irradiation alone showed a slight decrease in the cell structure of C. albicans. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of long-wave ultraviolet combined with riboflavin photosensitizer showed no antifungal effect on C. albicans and F. solani. The significant decrease in cell morphology of both filamentous fungi and yeasts submitted to photosensitizing riboflavin and exposure to ultraviolet light, respectively, may be promising in the development and standardization of alternatives for fungal cell inactivation, because of their minimal cytotoxic effects on the corneal surface. The methodological improvement in the preparation and application of individual chemical compounds, such as riboflavin, or physical systems, such as a long-wave light source, as antifungal agents may also assist in establishing promising therapeutic procedures for keratomycosis.

Concepts: Scientific method, Statistics, Fungus, Yeast, Qualitative research, Candida albicans, Contact lens, Ascomycota


BACKGROUND: To assess the role of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) measurements as prognostic factors in myopic macular hole (MMH) surgery. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, we evaluated 42 eyes of 42 patients (Spherical equivalent > -6.00 D) who underwent pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling for MMH without foveoschisis. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) with preoperative BCVA, age, degree of myopia and seven preoperative OCT measurements: macular hole (MH) base, MH minimum diameter, MH height, Hole Form Factor (HFF), Macular Hole Index (MHI), Diameter Hole Index (DHI) and Tractional Hole Index (THI). RESULTS: Primary and final anatomical success rate were 83.3 % (35/42) and 90.5 % (38/42), respectively. Four patients deferred reoperation and three underwent a second surgical approach to achieve MH closure. A posterior staphyloma was observed in 27 of 42 patients, and in three of them the MH was located in the apex of the staphyloma. Two of these three cases showed an open MH after the first surgery. Postoperative visual acuity improved in 22/42 (52.4 %) patients, worsened in 7/42 (16.7 %) and remained unchanged in 13/42 (30.9 %). Only MH minimum diameter (P = 0.03) and HFF (P = 0.02) correlated significantly with postoperative BCVA. CONCLUSIONS: Minimum diameter and HFF are strongly correlated with postoperative visual outcomes in cases of MMH. Since analyzing MH configuration seems to improve the anatomical success rate after vitreous surgery in highly myopic patients, these parameters should be preoperatively evaluated by SD-OCT.

Concepts: Cohort study, Retina, Ophthalmology, Vitrectomy, Optical coherence tomography, Myopia, Eyeglass prescription, Staphyloma