Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: General dentistry


Acellular dermal matrix allograft (ADMA) is an alternative to a free gingival graft for keratinized tissue augmentation and root coverage. Soft tissue dehiscence is one of the major complications that can occur after replacing a missing tooth with a dental implant; it can lead to esthetic problems and have a negative impact on the long-term success of the implant. Soft tissue dehiscence coverage is not as predictable around dental implants as it is on root surfaces. This article describes a case involving soft tissue dehiscence, in which an ADMA was used to increase the width of keratinized mucosa around an implant-supported prosthesis, resulting in complete implant surface coverage due to the phenomenon of creeping attachment.

Concepts: Implants, Prosthetics, Dental implant


Restoring worn anterior mandibular teeth is a challenge, especially when teeth are small, esthetics are a concern, the long-term prognosis is questionable, and/or patient finances are an issue. This article describes an alternate treatment for a patient with a collapsed bite, missing posterior mandibular teeth, an ill-fitting complete maxillary denture with poor esthetics, and irregular, worn mandibular anterior teeth.

Concepts: Mandible, Dentures


Incidental radiopacities of the jaws are commonly identified on routine intraoral and extraoral radiographs. Dentists should be able to develop a differential diagnosis of these lesions. This article presents 2 cases in which mandibular radiopacities associated with external root resorption were identified incidentally and discusses the differential diagnosis of these lesions. Both patients were referred by their general practitioners to dental specialists for further evaluation of homogenous osteosclerotic foci surrounding and resorbing the roots of the permanent mandibular right first molar. The lesions were asymptomatic, caused no cortical expansion, and were static over time. The clinical and radiographic features were consistent with a diagnosis of idiopathic osteosclerosis (IO). External root resorption is present in 10%-12% of cases of IO and often involves the permanent mandibular first molars.

Concepts: Medical terms, Molar, Differential diagnosis


The continued growth in athletic participation among children and adults has increased the potential incidence of sports-related dental injuries. Regardless of preventive measures, damage and injury to the oral cavity can occur during participation in sports. Luxations, root fractures, bony fractures, and avulsions involving 1 or more teeth are a possibility. Many of these injuries require specific protocols for splinting of the traumatized tooth or teeth to allow the best possible outcomes. This article identifies luxation and avulsion injuries, explains the rationale for splinting, reviews guidelines for splint duration, and discusses contemporary material options available to stabilize affected permanent dentition.

Concepts: Injuries, Teeth


This article outlines a comprehensive, multidisciplinary strategy for treatment of patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. In this approach, primary medical intervention and emergency dental care are followed by the staging of treatment phases that integrate medical care, psychotherapy, nutritional counseling, and dental management, which may encompass various treatment options for repair of damaged dentition. Emphasis is placed on prevention of further tissue damage during all phases of management and following completion of the treatment course.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Health, Anorexia nervosa, Eating disorders, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Dentistry, Bulimia nervosa


There is continued speculation on the value of mouthguards (MGs) in preventing mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI)/concussion injuries. The purpose of this randomized prospective study was to compare the impact of pressure-laminated (LM), custom-made, properly fitted MGs to over-the-counter (OTC) MGs on the MTBI/concussion incidence in high school football athletes over a season of play. Four hundred twelve players from 6 high school football teams were included in the study. Twenty-four MTBI/concussion injuries (5.8%) were recorded. When examining the MTBI/concussion injury rate by MG type, there was a significant difference (P = 0.0423) with incidence rates of 3.6% and 8.3% in the LM MG and OTC MG groups, respectively.

Concepts: Traumatic brain injury, Rates, Injury, High school, Over-the-counter drug, American football, Concussion, High school football


Within the last few decades, an increasing number of adults have sought orthodontic therapy. One disadvantage of pursuing orthodontic treatment in adulthood is the lengthened time span required to complete tooth movement. The purpose of this article is to review the biologic mechanisms of accelerated tooth movement as well as the literature on nonsurgical and surgical techniques that may reduce the duration of orthodontic treatment.


The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) bifurcations through the utilization of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The secondary purposes of this study were to analyze the average distance from the main trunk to its branch at the greatest point, to calculate the average distance of the bifid IAN from the apices of the teeth, and to determine the appropriate classification for each IAN bifid nerve according to the types described by Nortjé et al: type 1, 2 canals originating from a single foramen with a narrower inferior canal; type 2, 2 canals originating from a single foramen with a superior canal extending to the second or third molar; type 3, 2 canals of equal size that arise from 2 mental foramina that may link into a single canal near the molars. Examination of 194 CBCT scans revealed that IAN bifurcations were present in 13.4% (n = 26) of the study population. Bifurcation was bilateral in 4 individuals. For left bifurcated IANs, the average distance between the superior border of the main branch and inferior border of the bifurcated IAN (GDN) was 3.41 mm. The average distance from the superior border of the bifurcated IAN to the apex of the closest root (NAP) was 3.45 mm. For right bifurcated IANs, the average GDN was 4.01 mm, and the average NAP was 4.85 mm. Fourteen bifid nerves were type 1, and 16 were type 2. Preoperative CBCT studies can determine the presence of a bifurcated IAN, thereby reducing the chances of neurologic damage.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of teeth with standard or extended mesio-occlusodistal (MOD) preparations after restoration with bonded computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) materials. Standard or extended MOD cavities were prepared in 60 of 70 extracted, caries-free third molars. In the standard MOD preparations (n = 30), 4.5- mm buccal and lingual/palatal wall thickness remained, and proximal boxes extended 1.0 mm coronal to the cementoenamel junction. In the extended MOD preparations (n = 30), the buccal and lingual/palatal walls were reduced to a thickness of 3.0 mm. A CAD/CAM acquisition unit was used to scan 20 standard and 20 extended preparations. Subsequently, 10 standard and 10 extended preparations were restored with milled lithium disilicate, and 10 of each type were restored with resin nanoceramic. Ten of each preparation type were left unrestored (negative control). An additional 10 third molars were neither prepared nor restored (positive control). After thermocycling and cyclic loading, specimens were fractured in a material testing device. Although bonded CAD/CAM restorations reinforced the tooth structure, the mean fracture loads were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in teeth with restored extended preparations (2642.4 [SD 479.4] N) than in teeth with restored standard preparations (3376.6 [SD 817.9] N). The type of CAD/CAM restorative material did not significantly affect the fracture load. Practitioners should consider covering the cusps with a CAD/CAM restorative material to reduce the potential for fracture in preparations with reduced cuspal thickness, especially in patients with heavier occlusion or functional loads.


The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of panoramic radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection of signs of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) degenerative joint disease (DJD). Panoramic radiography and bilateral MRI and computed tomography (CT) of the TMJs were performed for 705 subjects. Three calibrated board-certified radiologists who were blinded to the clinical findings interpreted all images. The diagnoses of DJD established using the panoramic radiographs and MRIs were compared to the reference standard diagnoses derived from the CTs. DJD was defined as the presence of at least 1 of the following 4 signs: a subcortical cyst, surface erosion, osteophyte formation, or generalized sclerosis. The target values for sensitivity and specificity were 70% or greater and 95% or greater, respectively. Compared to the reference standard CTs, the panoramic radiographs had the following sensitivity and specificity values: subcortical cysts, 14% and 100%, respectively; erosion, 20% and 100%, respectively; osteophytes, 12% and 100%, respectively; and sclerosis, 33% and 100%, respectively. The MRIs achieved the following sensitivity and specificity values: subcortical cysts, 32% and 100% respectively; erosion, 35% and 99% respectively; osteophytes, 71% and 98%, respectively; and sclerosis, 50% and 100%, respectively. The radiologists' interexaminer reliability was slight (κ = 0.16) when using panoramic radiographs, moderate (κ = 0.47) when using MRIs, and substantial when using CTs (κ = 0.71) for diagnosis of signs of DJD. Panoramic radiographs and MRIs had below-target sensitivity but above-target specificity in detecting all CT-depicted signs of DJD with the exception of osteophytes, for which MRIs demonstrated adequate diagnostic accuracy. Use of CT for diagnosis of TMJ DJD is recommended to avoid the false-negative findings that can occur if panoramic radiographs and MRIs are used.