Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: General dentistry


Acellular dermal matrix allograft (ADMA) is an alternative to a free gingival graft for keratinized tissue augmentation and root coverage. Soft tissue dehiscence is one of the major complications that can occur after replacing a missing tooth with a dental implant; it can lead to esthetic problems and have a negative impact on the long-term success of the implant. Soft tissue dehiscence coverage is not as predictable around dental implants as it is on root surfaces. This article describes a case involving soft tissue dehiscence, in which an ADMA was used to increase the width of keratinized mucosa around an implant-supported prosthesis, resulting in complete implant surface coverage due to the phenomenon of creeping attachment.

Concepts: Implants, Prosthetics, Dental implant


Restoring worn anterior mandibular teeth is a challenge, especially when teeth are small, esthetics are a concern, the long-term prognosis is questionable, and/or patient finances are an issue. This article describes an alternate treatment for a patient with a collapsed bite, missing posterior mandibular teeth, an ill-fitting complete maxillary denture with poor esthetics, and irregular, worn mandibular anterior teeth.

Concepts: Mandible, Dentures


Incidental radiopacities of the jaws are commonly identified on routine intraoral and extraoral radiographs. Dentists should be able to develop a differential diagnosis of these lesions. This article presents 2 cases in which mandibular radiopacities associated with external root resorption were identified incidentally and discusses the differential diagnosis of these lesions. Both patients were referred by their general practitioners to dental specialists for further evaluation of homogenous osteosclerotic foci surrounding and resorbing the roots of the permanent mandibular right first molar. The lesions were asymptomatic, caused no cortical expansion, and were static over time. The clinical and radiographic features were consistent with a diagnosis of idiopathic osteosclerosis (IO). External root resorption is present in 10%-12% of cases of IO and often involves the permanent mandibular first molars.

Concepts: Medical terms, Molar, Differential diagnosis


The continued growth in athletic participation among children and adults has increased the potential incidence of sports-related dental injuries. Regardless of preventive measures, damage and injury to the oral cavity can occur during participation in sports. Luxations, root fractures, bony fractures, and avulsions involving 1 or more teeth are a possibility. Many of these injuries require specific protocols for splinting of the traumatized tooth or teeth to allow the best possible outcomes. This article identifies luxation and avulsion injuries, explains the rationale for splinting, reviews guidelines for splint duration, and discusses contemporary material options available to stabilize affected permanent dentition.

Concepts: Injuries, Teeth


This article outlines a comprehensive, multidisciplinary strategy for treatment of patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. In this approach, primary medical intervention and emergency dental care are followed by the staging of treatment phases that integrate medical care, psychotherapy, nutritional counseling, and dental management, which may encompass various treatment options for repair of damaged dentition. Emphasis is placed on prevention of further tissue damage during all phases of management and following completion of the treatment course.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Health, Anorexia nervosa, Eating disorders, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Dentistry, Bulimia nervosa


Acidic beverage consumption is a well-recognized contributor to extrinsic dental erosion. Although the pH values of some commercially available bottled waters are below neutral pH, water is still considered to be a safe and healthy choice. Artificial flavoring liquids or powders, known as water enhancers (WEs), have been introduced to the market to modify the taste of water. The purposes of the present study were to measure the pH and titratable acidity of WEs and to perform gravimetric analysis of teeth immersed in solutions of WEs mixed with different brands of bottled water in order to determine the erosive potential in vitro. The pH and titratable acidity using 0.1M sodium hydroxide were calculated for 7 brands of WEs added to 3 brands of bottled water, which had different initial pH values. Extracted human molar teeth were submerged in each combination of solutions for gravimetric analysis. Distilled water was used as the positive control and citric acid as the negative control. Data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey-Kramer testing (P = 0.05). The pH value (2.9-3.0) and titratable acidity (32.2-35.3 mmol/L hydroxide) of all of the experimental solutions were considered acidic, regardless of the WE brand. Average tooth structure loss after 1 month of immersion in the solutions was 4%, and surface changes were consistent with erosive dissolution. The results showed that adding a WE to water significantly increases the potential for dental erosion. The high content of citric acid in WEs is believed to be the cause. Patients should be advised to use WEs with caution.


There is continued speculation on the value of mouthguards (MGs) in preventing mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI)/concussion injuries. The purpose of this randomized prospective study was to compare the impact of pressure-laminated (LM), custom-made, properly fitted MGs to over-the-counter (OTC) MGs on the MTBI/concussion incidence in high school football athletes over a season of play. Four hundred twelve players from 6 high school football teams were included in the study. Twenty-four MTBI/concussion injuries (5.8%) were recorded. When examining the MTBI/concussion injury rate by MG type, there was a significant difference (P = 0.0423) with incidence rates of 3.6% and 8.3% in the LM MG and OTC MG groups, respectively.

Concepts: Traumatic brain injury, Rates, Injury, High school, Over-the-counter drug, American football, Concussion, High school football


Over the past decade, targeted therapies have emerged as promising forms of cancer treatment and are increasingly included in chemotherapeutic regimens for an ever-growing list of human cancers. Targeted therapies are so-named due to their specific targeting of dysregulated signaling pathways in cancer cells. This enhanced discrimination between tumor and normal cells is a more promising and efficacious approach to cancer treatment than conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, targeted therapies still have side effects, and some manifest in the oral cavity. Oral adverse events tend to be mild and thus may be overlooked in the context of a patient’s overarching diagnosis and management. These oral lesions are often noted during an intraoral examination and identified in the context of the patient’s medical history and medication list. It is imperative that the dentist be informed of the oral sequelae of targeted therapies. Many of these side effects can be successfully managed in a palliative manner with conservative therapy. This article discusses the clinical presentations and treatment of intraoral adverse events attributable to the following classes of targeted therapies: epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, angiogenesis inhibitors, and selected tyrosine kinase inhibitors.


Manufacturers have recently introduced surface primers and pretreatment solutions that reportedly simplify the bonding process of resin cements to ceramics through various combinations of etchant and coupling agents. This study evaluated the shear bond strength (SBS) of a resin cement to a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic material pretreated with various new surface treatment solutions and compared the results to those of a control group prepared with the traditional application of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and silane. Resin cement was bonded to pretreated glass-ceramic surfaces, and specimens were tested for SBS after 24 hours of storage in water. Traditional surface treatment of lithium disilicate glass ceramic with HF and silane resulted in a significantly greater mean SBS than did simplified primer solutions. There were no statistically significant differences among the simplified pretreatment groups. In the control group, the majority of failures were due to mixed adhesive-cohesive fracture, while in the simplified treatment groups the failure mode was usually adhesive, suggesting a weaker interface.


The characteristics of prosthetic implant components, such as the type, material, and surface roughness of abutments, can affect biofilm formation. Since an ideal abutment surface for the reduction of bacterial adhesion has yet to be found, this in vitro study aimed to quantify biofilm formation on laser-treated titanium, zirconia, and titanium surfaces. Sterile titanium, zirconia, and laser-treated titanium discs were placed in sterile 48-well plates. Biofilm formation was induced by adding sterilized, unstimulated human saliva and suspensions of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) to the wells. Viable bacteria in the biofilm were quantified with real-time polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with propidium monoazide. The disc material, the type of bacteria, and their interactions had significant effects on the bacterial counts. On all surfaces, the Pg count was significantly higher than both the Pi and Aa counts (P = 0.0001). The highest count of periodontal pathogens was found on laser-treated surfaces. The second highest and the lowest counts were found on zirconia and titanium surfaces, respectively.