SciCombinator

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Journal: Free radical research

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There are increasing studies indicating that a disturbance in iron homeostasis is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases in which oxidative stress plays an important role. To counteract oxidative stress, bioactive molecules as the flavonoid resveratrol can act as scavenger agents or by modulating enzymes and metabolic signaling pathways, thus depicting neuroprotective potential. On the other hand, flavonoids, resveratrol included, have been reported to induce increase in reactive species production. In this study we aimed to evaluate in vivo the protective potential of resveratrol against iron imbalance using the Caenorhabditis elegans model. We acutely exposed C. elegans to iron and administered resveratrol pre- or postiron treatment. Iron-treated worms demonstrated a significant decrease in survival, neuronal change, decreased dehydrogenases activity and ATP levels and a significant increase in oxidative stress. Acute pre-exposure to resveratrol potentiated the toxic effect of the metal by reducing ATP levels, while postiron chronic resveratrol treatment following iron exposure increased worms survival and reducing generation of reactive species and neuronal damage. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that resveratrol have different protective effects depending on the duration and order of administration, whereby chronic postiron treatment to resveratrol as an antidote appeared to be a more effective approach.

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Redox homeostasis is necessary for maintenance of living systems. Chikungunya viral infection manifests into joint inflammation and debilitating polyarthralgia affecting the life style of the patient badly. The disease pathophysiology is poorly understood and there is a lack of targeted therapeutics. The pathogenic role of free radicals in arthritis is well established. This study aims for the first time to evaluate the status of several standard oxidative stress markers and their correlation in Chikungunya patients suffering with polyarthralgia. Expression of Siglec-9 on monocytes; which can modulate oxidative stress is studied along with intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), cellular lipid and protein damage markers in Chikungunya patients with/without persisting polyarthralgia along with healthy controls. Furthermore, plasma NO level, antioxidant status was investigated along with some inflammatory cytokines namely IL-6, IFN-γ, CXCL-9, IL-10 and TGFβ1. Interestingly, all oxidative damage markers are altered significantly in groups but their alteration levels vary in patients with/without persisting polyarthralgia. Siglec-9 expression level is increased in patients revealing cellular response to manage oxidative stress with respect to controls. Correlation studies reveal that intracellular ROS correlates well with most of the studied parameters but the correlation coefficient (Pearson r) differs with disease manifestation demonstrating strong role of these factors in a pro-oxidant milieu. Presence of free radicals increases the availability of neoantigens continuously, which possibly further cascades oxidative damage and development of persisting polyarthralgia.

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Upregulation of mitochondrial function and oxidative metabolism is a hallmark in the differentiation of stem cells. However, the mechanism underlying the metabolic reprogramming and upregulation of mitochondrial function during the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is largely unclear. Sirt3 has emerged as a sensor in regulating mitochondrial function and antioxidant defense system in cellular response to energy demand or environmental stimuli, but its roles in stem cell differentiation has not been fully understood. In this study, we used adipose-derived hMSCs (ad-hMSCs) to investigate the role of Sirt3 in adipogenic differentiation and in the function of mature adipocytes. We showed that at the early stage of adipogenic differentiation, Sirt3 upregulation is essential for the activation of biogenesis and bioenergetic function of mitochondria. In addition, we found that induction of Forkhead Box O 3a (FoxO3a), an upstream factor that regulates MnSOD gene transcription, is involved in the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes at the early stage of adipogenic differentiation. Silencing of Sirt3 by shRNA decreased the protein level of FoxO3a and subsequently downregulated a number of FoxO3a-mediated antioxidant enzymes and increased oxidative stress in ad-hMSCs after adipogenic induction. Importantly, depletion of Sirt3 compromised the ability of ad-hMSCs to undergo adipogenic differentiation and led to adipocyte dysfunction and insulin resistance. These findings suggest that Sirt3-mediated protein deacetylation plays an important role in regulating oxidative metabolism and antioxidant defense in stem cell differentiation, and that Sirt3 deficiency may be related to insulin resistance.

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NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) regulates transcription of phase II cytoprotective enzymes to protect normal cells against oxidative stress. However, a high level of NRF2 offers a growth advantage, chemoresistance, and radioresistance in cancer. In the present study, we have identified convallatoxin as a novel inhibitor of NRF2/ARE suppression of NRF2 by convallatoxin was not transcriptionally mediated, but regulated at the level of proteolysis. Convallatoxin activated GSK-3β and suppression of NRF2 by convallatoxin required the Neh6 domain. Convallatoxin sensitized A549 cells to 5-FU-mediated cell death by promoting apoptosis. Together, our results provide evidence that convallatoxin might be useful as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant due to its ability to suppress NRF2/ARE.

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Recent studies have revealed that acrolein, a commonly found toxin and a potent metabolite of cyclophosphamide (CTX), can cause deterioration of mouse oocyte quality through a mechanism involving the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We extend these studies to evaluate the effects of acrolein, in varying concentrations, on the oocyte mitochondrial membrane and oocyte apoptosis and its effect on embryo development in vitro. Metaphase II mouse oocytes were exposed for 45 min to acrolein and CTX (10 & 25 µM) and mitochondrial dysfunction, a major source of ROS overproduction, was evaluated by the 5,5,6,6-tetrachloro-1,1,3,3-tetraethyl-β-benzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-10) Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay. Treatment with acrolein led to mitochondrial membrane damage as well as induction of apoptosis compared to untreated control (p < 0.05). Similar results were obtained when oocytes were exposed to CTX (p < 0.05). Subsequently, the effect of acrolein exposure was evaluated by observing in vitro development of embryos after exposure. Acrolein treatment caused higher proportions of arrested and poor-quality embryos, evidenced by irregular cleavage, severe asymmetry of blastomeres, presence of large percentage of anuclear fragments, and dark granularity of the cytoplasm. Development at various durations in culture revealed that optimal embryo growth was significantly inhibited in a dose dependent manner, when compared to control (p < 0.05). A global model that links acrolein accumulation, generation of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction and their effect on oocyte and embryo quality is discussed further. Collectively, understanding the mechanism by which CTX and acrolein impact fertility is helpful in finding potential alternative or supplemental treatment options.

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Despite being an efficacious anticancer agent, the clinical utility of cisplatin is hindered by its cardinal side effects. This investigation aimed to appraise potential protective impact of dunnione, a natural naphthoquinone pigment with established NQO1 stimulatory effects, on cisplatin nephrotoxicity of rats. Dunnione was administered orally at 10 and 20 mg/kg doses for 4 d and a single injection of cisplatin was delivered at the second day. Renal histopathology, inflammatory/oxidative stress/apoptotic markers, kidney function, and urinary markers of renal injury were assessed. Dunnione repressed cisplatin-induced inflammation in the kidneys as indicated by decreased TNF-α/IL-1β levels, and reduced nuclear phosphorylated NF-κB p65. This agent also obviated cisplatin-invoked oxidative stress as elucidated by decreased MDA/GSH levels and increased SOD/CAT activities. Dunnione, furthermore, improved renal histological deteriorations as well as caspase-3 activities and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TUNEL) positive cells, the indicators of apoptosis. Moreover, it up-regulated nuclear Nrf2 and cytosolic haeme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NQO1 levels; meanwhile, promoted NAD+/NADH ratios followed by enhancing the activities of Sirt1 and PARP1; and further attenuated nuclear acetylated NF-κB p65. Dunnione additionally declined cisplatin-evoked retrogression in renal function and upraise in urinary markers of glomerular and tubular injury as demonstrated by decreased serum urea and creatinine with simultaneous reductions in urinary excretions of collagen type IV, podocin, cystatin C, and retinol-binding protein (RBP). Altogether, these findings offer dunnione as a potential protective agent against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

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Autophagy modulation is a potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer, and a previous study indicated that metformin exhibits significant anticarcinogenic activity. However, the ability of metformin to induce autophagy and its role in breast cancer cell death remains unclear. In this study, we exposed MCF-7 cells to different concentrations of metformin (2.5, 5 and 10 mM) for 48 h, and metformin induced significant apoptosis in the MCF-7 cells. The expression levels of CL-PARP and the ratio of BAX to BCL-2 were significantly increased. In addition to apoptosis, we showed that metformin increased autophagic flux in MCF-7 cells, as evidenced by the upregulation of LC3-II and downregulation of P62/SQSTM1. Moreover, pharmacological or genetic blocking of autophagy increased metformin-induced apoptosis, indicating a cytoprotective role of autophagy in metformin-treated MCF-7 cells. Mechanistically, metformin induced TFE3(Ser321) dephosphorylation, activated TFE3 nuclear translocation and increased of TFE3 reporter activity, which contributed to lysosomal biogenesis and the expression of autophagy-related genes and, subsequently, initiated autophagy in MCF-7 cells. Importantly, we found that metformin triggered the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, abrogated the effects of metformin on TFE3-dependent autophagy. Notably, TFE3 expression positively correlated with breast cancer development and poor prognosis in patients. Taken together, these data demonstrate that blocking ROS-TFE3-dependent autophagy to enhance the activity of metformin warrants further attention as a treatment strategy for breast cancer.

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Malignant astrocytoma is the most commonly occurring brain tumor in humans. Oxidative stress is implicated in the development of cancers. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) was found to exert tumor suppressive effect in basic research, but increased SOD2 protein level was associated with higher aggressiveness of human astrocytomas. However, studies reporting alterations of antioxidant enzymes in human astrocytomas often employed less accurate methods or included different types of tumors. Here we analyzed the mRNA levels, activities, and protein levels of primary antioxidant enzymes in control brain tissues and various grades of astrocytomas obtained from 40 patients. SOD1 expression, SOD1 activity, and SOD1 protein level were lower in Grade IV astrocytomas. SOD2 expression was lower in low-grade (Grades I and II) and Grade III astrocytomas than in controls, but SOD2 expression and SOD2 protein level were higher in Grade IV astrocytomas than in Grade III astrocytomas. Although there was no change in SOD2 activity and a lower activity of citrate synthase (CS), the MnSOD:CS ratio increased in Grade IV astrocytomas compared with controls and low-grade astrocytomas. Furthermore, SOD1 activity, CS activity, SOD1 expression, GPX4 expression, and GPX4 protein level were inversely correlated with the malignancy, whereas catalase activity, catalase protein, SOD2 protein level, and the SOD2:CS ratio were positively correlated with the degree of malignancy. Lower SOD2:CS ratio was associated with poor outcomes for Grade IV astrocytomas. This is the first study to quantify changes of various primary antioxidant enzymes in different grades of astrocytomas at different levels concurrently in human astrocytomas.

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Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive α-oxoaldehyde that increases under diabetic conditions and subsequently contributes to the complications associated with this disease. Piceatannol is a naturally occurring analogue of resveratrol that possesses multiple biological functions. The present study investigated the effects of piceatannol on MG-induced cytotoxicity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Piceatannol significantly restored MG-induced reductions in cell viability and reduced lactate dehydrogenase release in MG-treated MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells, which suggests that it suppressed MG-induced cytotoxicity. Piceatannol also increased glyoxalase I activity and glutathione levels in MG-treated cells, which indicates that it enhanced the glyoxalase system and thus cellular protection. The present study also showed that piceatannol inhibited the generation of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species and ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction induced by MG. Furthermore, piceatannol treatment significantly reduced the levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy induced by MG. Therefore, piceatannol could be a potent option for the development of antiglycating agents for the treatment of diabetic osteopathy.

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Superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) is a SOD isozyme and plays a key role in extracellular redox homeostasis. We previously demonstrated that histone acetylation is involved in 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-elicited SOD3 expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells; however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for its expression have not yet been elucidated in detail. The results of the present study demonstrated that the binding of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) to the SOD3 promoter region contributed to SOD3 silencing in basal THP-1 cells. On the other hand, the dissociation of HDAC1 from the SOD3 promoter region and the enrichment of p300, a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), within that region were observed in TPA-induced THP-1 cells. Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) functions as a scaffold protein that interacts with histone deacetylases (HDAC) or HAT and regulates gene expression. The present results showed that the MEF2A and MEF2D function as mediators for TPA-elicited SOD3 expression by interacting with HDAC or p300. Additionally, the knockdown of MEF2A or MEF2D in human skin fibroblasts suppressed SOD3 expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Our results provide an insight into epigenetic regulation of redox gene expression, and may ultimately contribute to suppressing the progression of tumours and vascular diseases.