SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Foot and ankle clinics

27

This article reviews the basics of articular cartilage biology, which provide a necessary foundation for understanding the evolving field of articular cartilage injury and repair. The currently popular treatment options for osteochondral injury (microfracture, osteochondral autograft transfer system, osteochondral allograft, autologous chondrocyte implantation, and the use of scaffolds with autologous chondrocyte implantation) document the significant advances made in this area in the past 2 decades. Integration of newly available information and technology derived from advances in molecular biology and tissue engineering holds even greater promise for continued advances in optimal management of this challenging problem.

Concepts: Biology, Knee cartilage replacement therapy, Evolution, DNA, Extracellular matrix, Molecular biology, Cartilage, Autologous chondrocyte implantation

22

Ankle injuries are a common traumatic injury. Rupture to the syndesmosis may occur as a result of these injuries. Strategies for the treatment of both acute and chronic syndesmotic repair are reviewed in detail. Significance of Chaput, Wagstaffe, and posterior malleolus fractures on syndesmotic stability are reviewed. Treatment considerations for total ankle arthroplasty are discussed, and correction of coronal plane deformity as a result of late syndesmotic injury at the time of ankle arthroplasty is outlined.

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Minimally invasive techniques in the treatment of hallux valgus deformity have seen growing popularity since the 1990s. The purpose of this article is to assess the existing body of literature as to the safety and efficacy of minimally invasive techniques and identify areas for further development. The appeal of minimizing soft tissue damage, reducing surgical time, and faster recovery is currently offset by the initial learning curve and a lack of high-quality studies regarding minimally invasive techniques. There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend one minimally invasive technique over another and further high-level evidence studies are warranted.

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In this article the authors discuss their experience of performing minimally invasive surgery, with emphasis on technique and how to avoid pitfalls. They also discuss the educational literature for learning new techniques and how to shorten the “learning curve.”

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In the last decade, minimally invasive or percutaneous surgery has evolved rapidly through the development of novel techniques. Treatment of hallux valgus deformity is one of the indications for percutaneous surgery, both for bony and soft tissue correction. The release of the structures on the lateral part of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (lateral release) is one of the best indications for percutaneous surgery in the forefoot. In this article, a detailed description of the anatomy of the metatarsophalangeal joint is provided, along with the indications and tips to perform a safe percutaneous lateral release.

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Minimal incision surgical principals rely on the soft tissue envelope to maintain stability that is supplemented by a variety of clinically recommended fixation methods. The extended distal first metatarsal osteotomy has renewed interest because of the ability to laterally translate, angulate, and rotate the metatarsal head in proper alignment with the sesamoids to a neutral alignment. The soft tissue envelope of capsule, ligaments, and tendons will re-align once the bone deformity is corrected. The periosteum is maintained to provide a biologic scaffold for new bone formation and must be minimally disrupted during the intervention.“

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This article discusses the possible complications in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for hallux valgus. The rate of complications and the outcomes are at least comparable with open techniques. A percutaneous technique provides the best conditions for undisturbed healing. Some possible complications exist in MIS that do not exist in open surgery, such as lesion of soft tissue structures that are not under direct visible control or skin burns. These complications usually result from technical mistakes in performing the operation. It is therefore crucial to get proper education from cadaver training and visiting experienced colleagues, as is done in open surgery.

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Described in the early 1900s by Albrecht and Lapidus, the Lapidus procedure became an important tool in the armamentarium. With the increase of percutaneous techniques, the development of a percutaneous Lapidus seemed obvious.

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The windswept foot remains a reconstructive challenge. The hallux valgus associated with the medially displaced lesser metatarsal heads is hard to correct. Either the lesser metatarsal heads need to be displaced laterally or the deformity accepted. With the deformity, all the toes tend to be aligned into valgus with the position of the flexor and extensor tendons. Several treatment alternatives exist and may require a combination of open and percutaneous surgery. The authors think that, in severe metatarsus adductus, proximal correction of the first, second, and third metatarsals is required.

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A bunionette deformity is a painful prominence on the lateral aspect of the fifth metatarsal head. Surgical treatment can be considered if conservative treatment has failed to relieve the symptoms. The percutaneous approach consists of 2 steps: a condylectomy and an osteotomy of the fifth metatarsal. The learning curve is small and the final results are similar to the open techniques. The main advantages are the hardware-free technique and the minimally invasive approach. This percutaneous approach avoids complications related to hardware and soft tissue healing. Because of this low complication rate, the percutaneous technique may become the new gold standard.