SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Expert review of medical devices

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Biodegradable stents overcome some of the problems encountered with self-expanding metal stents. They main advantage over self-expanding metal stents is that endoscopic removal is not needed. Single biodegradable stents are often only temporarily effective in patients with a refractory benign esophageal stricture, as in the majority dysphagia recurs. If this occurs, sequential biodegradable stent placement may be an effective alternative to avoid the burden of serial dilations. In the future, it can be expected that (covered) biodegradable stents will be available to treat benign esophageal perforations/leaks, but also that they will be used for treating malignant indications combined with other (palliative) modalities, such as bridge to surgery or to maintain luminal patency during neoadjuvant chemoradiation.

Concepts: Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Esophageal stricture

25

Bone-anchored hearing devices have evolved over recent years. This article provides an overview of the device history, indications, evolution of surgical technique, evidence for benefit and focuses on the challenges that are faced in the pediatric population.

Concepts: Medicine, Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

24

This paper reviews both commercial and academic results on creating fully mechanical (i.e. non-robotic) laparoscopic devices that provide wrists or wrist-like dexterity within the patient. Many of these devices aim to provide dexterity conceptually similar to the EndoWrist instruments of the da Vinci surgical robot, but without requiring computers and motors. The motivation is to provide high-dexterity instruments at a lower cost than current surgical robots offer. In this paper we review the state of the art in the development of these mechanical instruments, focusing on the surgeon interface, wrist mechanism, and the kinematic mapping between the two.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Robotic surgery, The Da Vinci Code, Da Vinci Surgical System, Surgical robots

19

The benefits and disadvantages of pulsatility in mechanical circulatory support devices have been argued since before the first use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with a nonpulsatile pump. The debate over the superiority of either pulsatile or nonpulsatile perfusion during CPB persists, but recently, the evidence in favor of pulsatile perfusion during CPB is increasing. Complications associated with chronic nonpulsatile flow in patients implanted with left ventricular assist devices have renewed interest in generating pulsatility with these devices. Area discussed: Here we review the definition of pulsatility, the outcomes of CPB using pulsatile and nonpulsatile pumps, and how best to produce and assess pulsatility. Those information were identified through online database and direct extraction of single studies cited in previously identified manuscripts. Expert commentary: The newer generation of biocompatible pulsatile pumps that can generate physiologic pulsation may prove beneficial during temporary support for short use during CPB or intermediate support for cardiogenic shock.

Concepts: Blood, Cardiology, Heart, Pulse, Pump, Ventricular assist device, Cardiogenic shock, Evidence

4

Driven by healthcare cost and home healthcare need, the development of remote monitoring technologies is poised to improve and revolutionize healthcare delivery and accessibility. This paper reviews the recent progress in the field of remote monitoring technologies that may have the potential to become the basic platforms for telemedicine. In particular, key techniques and devices for monitoring cardiorespiratory activity, blood pressure and blood glucose concentration are summarized and discussed. In addition, the US FDA approved remote vital signs monitoring devices currently available on the market are presented.

Concepts: Blood pressure, Blood sugar, Vital signs, PH, Technology, Food and Drug Administration, Health informatics, The New Era

2

Introduction Anastomotic leak (AL) after colorectal surgery is a devastating complication; decreased blood perfusion is an important risk factor. Surgeons rely on subjective measures to assess bowel perfusion. Fluorescence imaging (FI) with indocyanine green (ICG) provides a real-time objective assessment of intestinal perfusion. Areas Covered A Pubmed search using the terms ‘fluorescence imaging’, ‘indocyanine green’, ‘colon and rectal surgery’ was undertaken. Sixteen articles between 2010 to present were identified. Main outcomes were leak rate reduction, change in surgical plan, and technical feasibility. Change in surgical strategy due to FI was recorded in 11 studies. Two case control studies showed overall reduction of 4% and 12% in AL rate and one showed no change in AL rate between groups. Expert Commentary According to the available literature, FI is technically feasible and alters surgical strategy in a non-negligible number of patients possibly effecting AL rates.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Surgery, Digestive system, Assessment, Ulcerative colitis, Colon, Large intestine, Defecation

2

Consumer sleep tracking devices such as fitness trackers and smartphone apps have become increasingly popular. These devices claim to measure the sleep duration of their users and in some cases purport to measure sleep quality and awaken users from light sleep, potentially improving overall sleep. Most of these devices appear to utilize data generated from in-built accelerometers to determine sleep parameters but the exact mechanisms and algorithms are proprietary. The growing literature comparing these devices against polysomnography/ actigraphy shows that they tend to underestimate sleep disruptions and overestimate total sleep times and sleep efficiency in normal subjects. In this review, we evaluate the current literature comparing the accuracy of consumer sleep tracking devices against more conventional methods used to measure sleep duration and quality. We discuss the current technology that these devices utilize as well as summarize the value of these devices in clinical evaluations and their potential limitations.

Concepts: Evaluation, Sleep, Psychometrics, Linguistics, The Current, Utility, Potential, IPhone

0

Introduction: Automated insulin delivery for people with type 1 diabetes has been a major goal in the diabetes technology field for many years. While a fully automated system has not yet been accomplished, the MiniMedâ„¢ 670G artificial pancreas (AP) system is the first commercially available insulin pump that automates basal insulin delivery, while still requiring user input for insulin boluses. Determining the safety and efficacy of this system is essential to the development of future devices striving for more automation. Areas Covered: This review will provide an overview of how the MiniMed 670G system works including its safety and efficacy, how it compares to similar devices, and anticipated future advances in diabetes technology currently under development. Expert Opinion: The ultimate goal of advanced diabetes technologies is to reduce the burden and amount of management required of patients with diabetes. In addition to reducing patient workload, achieving better glucose control and improving hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values are essential for reducing the threat of diabetes-related complications further down the road. Current devices come close to reaching these goals, but understanding the unmet needs of patients with diabetes will allow future technologies to achieve these goals more quickly.

0

Introduction: At present, cancer imaging examination relies mainly on manual reading of doctors, which requests a high standard of doctors' professional skills, clinical experience and concentration. However, the increasing amount of medical imaging data has brought more and more challenges to radiologists. The detection of digestive system cancer (DSC) based on artificial intelligence (AI) can provide a solution for automatic analysis of medical images and assist doctors to achieve high-precision intelligent diagnosis of cancers. Areas covered: The main goal of this paper is to introduce the main research methods of the AI based detection of DSC, and provide relevant learning and reference for relevant researchers. Meantime, it summarizes the main problems existing in these methods, and provides better guidance for future research. Expert commentary: The automatic classification, recognition and segmentation of DSC can be better realized through the detection methods of machine learning and deep learning, which minimize the internal information of images that are difficult for humans to discover. In the diagnosis of DSC for many organs and high incidence, the use of AI to assist imaging surgeons in tumor detection can achieve rapid and effective cancer detection and save doctors' diagnosis time. These can lay the foundation for better clinical diagnosis, treatment planning and accurate quantitative evaluation of DSC.

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Introduction: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is one of the most common nosocomial infections in hospitals, accounting for 36% of all health care-associated infections. Areas Covered: We aimed to address the potential impact of antimicrobial coating of catheter materials for the prevention of CAUTI and to analyze the progress made in this field. We conducted literature searches in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases, and found 578 articles. Data from 60 articles in either the preclinical or clinical stage were analyzed in this expert review. Expert Opinion: The literature review revealed many promising methods for preventing CAUTI. Recent studies have suggested the combination of silver-based products and antibiotics, owing to their synergistic effect, to help address the problem of antibiotic resistance. Other coating materials that have been tested include nitric oxide, chlorhexidine, antimicrobial peptides, enzymes, and bacteriophages. Because of heterogeneity among studies, it is difficult to reliably comment on the clinical efficacy of different coating materials. Future research should focus on double-blind randomized clinical trials for evaluating the role of these potential coating agents.